Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare, high-grade, epithelial-like sarcoma that shows characteristic histopathologic findings. Although a chromosomal anomaly that seems specific has been recently described, its diagnosis is based on histologic and ultrastructural features. The tumor shows no specific immunohistologic findings. Cytologic features of three cases of ASPS are presented. Preoperative fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the primary soft tissue tumor was performed in two cases. In another two, mediastinal and pulmonary and subcutaneous metastatic lesions were aspirated. In all cases the cytologic image was identical with numerous, dissociated, large neoplastic cells with round-to-plasmocytoid morphology. Cytoplasmic fragility and granularity with abundant, atypical, naked nuclei were present. In one case, FNA material was available for ultrastructural studies. It disclosed the characteristic cytoplasmic crystalline structures. A specific cytologic diagnosis of ASPS was given in all cases. In conclusion, ASPS is a rare neoplastic entity that shows a characteristic cytologic image. When accompanied by an adequate clinical context it permits specific preoperative recognition. While immunocytologic studies are helpful to exclude other neoplasms, ultrastructure may result in an exact diagnosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2002;27:115–119. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.