Pseudallescheria has been identified as one of the “clinically significant emerging mycoses” but has received little attention in the cytology literature. Recognition of this fungus is of particular importance clinically, because unlike most other fungi (including Aspergillus, with which it is most frequently confused), Pseudallescheria is not effectively treated with amphotericin B, the most frequently and often the only antifungal agent administered. Features helpful in the diagnosis of Pseudallescheria in cytologic material are presented. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2001;25:153–157. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.