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Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in aspirate, effusions, and cerebrospinal fluid by immunocytochemical detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex specific antigen MPT64

Authors

  • Manju Raj Purohit,

    1. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    2. Department of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
    3. Department of Pathology, R. D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India
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  • Tehmina Mustafa,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
    2. Section for Microbiology and Immunology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway
    • Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
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  • Harald G. Wiker,

    1. Section for Microbiology and Immunology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway
    2. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
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  • Lisbet Sviland

    1. Department of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway
    2. Section for Pathology, The Gade Institute, University of Bergen, Norway
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of immunocytochemical staining for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex-specific antigen MPT64, in tuberculous lymph node aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, and effusions from pleura and abdomen. One hundred ninety patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis (cases) and 80 patients with nontuberculous lesions (controls) were enrolled and differentiated on the basis of clinical features, histology, cytology, clinical biochemistry, Ziehl-Neelsen staining, Lowenstein-Jensen culture, and response to antituberculous therapy. Cervical lymph nodes fine-needle aspirate (n = 150), cerebrospinal fluid (n = 27), pleural fluid (n = 41), and peritoneal fluid (n = 52) were collected and stained with anti-MPT64 and anti-BCG antibodies using immunocytochemistry. Nested-PCR for IS6110 was done for comparison and to calculate the diagnostic indices of the ICC staining. ICC staining with anti-MPT64 was positive in 128/190 (67.4%) tuberculous smears and in 4/80 (5%) control smears thus giving sensitivity of 67.4% and the specificity of 95%, while anti-BCG was positive in 112 (58.9%) tuberculous smears and in 16/80 (20%) control smears with sensitivity of 58.9% and specificity of 80%. When diagnostic validation of ICC was done using PCR as the gold standard, the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative-predictive values for ICC staining in smears with anti-MPT64 was 96, 96, 95, and 97%, respectively, while the corresponding values for anti-BCG were 87, 88, 86, and 88%. ICC staining using anti-MPT64 represents a robust and simple method for establishing an early etiological diagnosis of M. tuberculosis complex infection in extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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