Oncogenic osteomalacia (OO) is a rare paraneoplastic condition in which a bone or soft tissue tumor induces biochemical and clinical signs and symptoms of osteomalacia (or rickets) most often by the production of the phosphaturic protein, fibroblast growth factor-23. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue type (PMTMCT) is a rare, histologically distinct tumor that represents the most common cause of OO. As the clinical diagnosis of OO is typically suspected on the basis of clinical and biochemical features and the presence of a bone or soft tissue tumor, cytologic examination might potentially provide the necessary pathologic confirmation of OO. In this case of a 46-year-old female with clinical stigmata of OO and a right distal humeral mass, we report that the fine-needle aspiration findings of short, cytologically bland spindled cells embedded in a fine, fibrillary stromal-rich matrix and the presence of osteoclast-type giant cells associated with the stromal matrix provide strong pathological evidence for PMTMCT and assist in pathologically confirming the clinical impression of OO, thus alleviating the need for a more invasive diagnostic surgical procedure Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.