Omics-Based Systems Vaccinology for Vaccine Target Identification

Authors

  • Yongqun He

    Corresponding author
    • Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA
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Correspondence to: Yongqun He, Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Michigan Medical School, 018 Animal Research Facility, 1150 W. Medical Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

E-mail: yongqunh@umich.edu

Abstract

Preclinical Research

Omics technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and immunomics. These technologies have been used in vaccine research, which can be summarized using the term “vaccinomics.” These omics technologies combined with advanced bioinformatics analysis form the core of “systems vaccinology.” Omics technologies provide powerful methods in vaccine target identification. The genomics-based reverse vaccinology starts with predicting vaccine protein candidates through in silico bioinformatics analysis of genome sequences. The VIOLIN Vaxign vaccine design program (http://www.violinet.org/vaxign) is the first web-based vaccine target prediction software based on the reverse vaccinology strategy. Systematic transcriptomics and proteomics analyses facilitate rational vaccine target identification by detesting genome-wide gene expression profiles. Immunomics is the study of the set of antigens recognized by host immune systems and has also been used for efficient vaccine target prediction. With the large amount of omics data available, it is necessary to integrate various vaccine data using ontologies, including the Gene Ontology (GO) and Vaccine Ontology (VO), for more efficient vaccine target prediction and assessment. All these omics technologies combined with advanced bioinformatics analysis methods for a systems biology-based vaccine target prediction strategy. This article reviews the various omics technologies and how they can be used in vaccine target identification.

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