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Study on Action Mechanism of 1-(4-Methoxy-2-Methylphenyl)Piperazine (MMPP) in Acquisition, Formation, and Consolidation of Memory in Mice

Authors

  • Andrés Navarrete,

    Corresponding author
    1. Facultad de Química, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., México
    • Correspondence to: Andrés Navarrete, Facultad de Química, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510. México D.F., México.

      E-mail: anavarrt@servidor.unam.mx

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  • Francisco X. Flores-Machorro,

    1. Facultad de Química, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., México
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  • Ruth I. Téllez-Ballesteros,

    1. Facultad de Química, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., México
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  • Alejandro Alfaro-Romero,

    1. Facultad de Química, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., México
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  • José Luis Balderas,

    1. Facultad de Química, Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., México
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  • Adelfo Reyes

    1. Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Unidad Multidisciplinaria de Investigación Experimental, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., México
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Abstract

Preclinical Research

In the present study, the mechanism of action of MMPP (1-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl) piperazine) in the acquisition (pretraining administration), formation (posttraining administration), and consolidation (pretest administration) of memory was assessed in the passive avoidance test using a short- and long-term memory protocol in mice. MMPP modified avoidance in the acquisition and formation of memory protocols but not in the consolidation protocol. Scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg i.p.), dizocilpine (0.003 mg/kg i.p.), and buspirone (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) completely inhibited MMPP-induced effects on memory acquisition and partially inhibited memory formation in the short-term but not long-term paradigm. This suggested that cholinergic, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A) receptors were implicated in the MMPP-induced improvements in memory. The sedative, anxiolytic, motor impairment, myorelaxant, and anticonvulsive (pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures) properties of MMPP were also assessed with the compound only showing a nondose-dependent myorelaxation. These results suggest that MMPP can enhance acquisition and formation, but not consolidation, of memory in short-term and long-term protocol via cholinergic, NMDA-glutamatergic, and 5-HT1A receptors.

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