Clinical Considerations on Anticoagulation Management in Cardiovascular Diseases During Pregnancy
Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013
© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Drug Development Research
Special Issue: Thrombosis Drugs and Diagnostics. Part II
Volume 74, Issue 8, pages 541–552, December 2013
How to Cite
Goland, S., Zilberman, L. and Elkayam, U. (2013), Clinical Considerations on Anticoagulation Management in Cardiovascular Diseases During Pregnancy. Drug Dev. Res., 74: 541–552. doi: 10.1002/ddr.21113
- Issue online: 13 DEC 2013
- Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013
- 2009. Management of pregnant women with mechanical heart valve prosthesis: thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin. Thromb Res 124:262–267. , , , , .
- 2008. Peripartum cardiomyopathy presenting with a pulmonary embolism: an unusual case. South Med J 101:646–647. .
- 2002. Massive pulmonary embolism during pregnancy successfully treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator: a case report and review of treatment options. Arch Intern Med 162:1221–1227. , , , .
- 2002. Pregnancy and mechanical heart valves replacement: dilemma of anticoagulation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 22:223–227. , , , .
- 2006. Improved outcomes in peripartum cardiomyopathy with contemporary. Am Heart J 152:509–513. , , .
- 1998. Is there a safe anticoagulation protocol for pregnant women with prosthetic valves. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 25:101–104. , , , , , , .
- Aventis Pharmaceuticals. 2004. Lovenox Injection [packet insert]. Bridgewater, NJ: Aventis Pharmaceuticals.
- 1995. Controversies in thromhoenibolic disease during pregnancy: a critical review. Obstet Gynecol 86:621–633. , .
- 2004. A prospective trial that demonstrates that dalteparin requirements increase in pregnancy to maintain therapeutic levels of anticoagulation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 191:1024–1029. , , .
- 2013. Pregnancy and venous thromboembolism. Semin Thromb Hemost 39:549–558. , , .
- 2012. VTE, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 141(2 Suppl):e691S–e736S. , , , , , .
- Bayer Schering Pharma AG. Summary of product. Characteristics: rivaroxaban. Date of text revision: May 2009. Accessed date: 2013- 10-12.
- 2000. A complication in anticoagulation using low-molecular weight heparin in a patient with mechanical valve prosthesis: a case report. J Heart Valve Dis 9:844–846. , , .
- 2010. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, postpartum or during contraceptive use. Thromb Haemost 103:306–311. , , , , , , .
- 2002. The risk of fetal loss associated with warfarin anticoagulation. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 78:221–225. , .
- Boehringer Ingelheim Canada Ltd. 2012. Product monograph-Dabigatran etexilate capsules.
- 2008. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2008 focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (writing committee to revise the 1998 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease). Endorsed by the society of cardiovascular anesthesiologists, society for cardiovascular angiography and interventions, and society of thoracic surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol 52(13):e1–e142. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 1992. Pregnancy in patients with prosthetic heart valves: the effects of anticoagulation on mother, fetus and neonate. Am Heart J 124:413–417. , , , , , , , , .
- 2010. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Lancet 375:500–512. , , , , .
- 2004. Dual coronary emboli in peripartum cardiomyopathy. Tex Heart Inst J 31:442–444. , , .
- 1995. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of subcutaneous heparin during the early third trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 173:1240–1245. , , , .
- 2003. Haemostatic changes in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 16:153–168. .
- 2004. Haemostatic changes in pregnancy. Thromb Res 114:409–414. .
- 2008. Drugs in pregnancy and lactation, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA, Wolters Kluwer. , , .
- 1989. Effect of pregnancy on pressure gradient in mitral stenosis. Am J Cardiol 63:384–386. , , , .
- 2006. Cost-effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis with intermittent pneumatic compression at cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 108:535–540. , .
- 2006. Bone density changes in women who receive thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 195:1109–1113. , , , , .
- 1999. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of the low-molecular-weight heparin enoxaparin sodium during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 181:1113–1117. , , , .
- 1999. Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy presenting in pregnancy. Can J Anaesth 46:1146–1149. , .
- 2000. Anticoagulation of pregnant women with mechanical heart valves: a systematic review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 160:191–196. , , .
- 1982. Pregnancy in patients with prosthetic heart valves: an experience with 45 pregnancies. Q J Med 51:358–365. , , , , .
- 2001. The phenomenon known as acquired activated protein C resistance. Br J Haematol 114:767–773. , .
- Consensus Reports. 2002. Anticoagulation and enoxaparin use in patients with prosthetic heart valves and/or pregnancy. Clinical cardiology consensus reports, vol. 3. American Health Consultants Atlanta (GA) 2002;3:1–20.
- 2013. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. J Thromb Thrombolysis. Epub ahead of print. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2002. Risk of warfarin during pregnancy with mechanical valve prostheses. Obstet Gynecol 99:35–40. , , , , , , .
- 1999. Osteoporotic fractures and the recurrence of thromboembolism during pregnancy and the puerperium in 184 women undergoing thromboprophylaxis with heparin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168:1265–1270. .
- 2011. Atrial fibrillation in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 117:489–492. , .
- 2005. Valvular heart disease and pregnancy: prosthetic valves part II. J Am Coll Cardiol 46:403–410. , .
- 2012. The search for a safe and effective anticoagulation regimen in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves. J Am Coll Cardiol 59:1116–1118. , .
- 2004. Anticoagulation in pregnant women with prosthetic heart valve. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 9:107–115. , , , .
- 2011. Clinical characteristics of peripartum cardiomyopathy in the United States: diagnosis, prognosis, and management. J Am Coll Cardiol 9;58(7):659–670. .
- 1997. Management of thromboembolic disease associated with pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Med 6:21–27. , , , .
- 2011. Monitoring of anti Xa in pregnant patients with mechanical prosthetic valves receiving low molecular weight heparin: peak or trough levels? (abstr). Circulation 122:A18219. , , , .
- 2011. Six-month echocardiographic study in patients with submassive pulmonary embolism and right ventricle dysfunction: comparison of thrombolysis with heparin. Am J Med Sci 341:33–39. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2005. Motherisk rounds: warfarin embryopathy following low-dose maternal exposure. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 27:702–706. , , , , , .
- 1965. Placental transport of heparin. Am J Obstet Gynecol 93:570–573. , , , .
- 1979. Occult thyrotoxicosis: a correctable cause of “idiopathic” atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 44:9–12. , , .
- 2006. Haemostasis and pregnancy. Thromb Haemost 95:401–413. .
- 2010. Fluctuations in anti-factor Xa levels with therapeutic enoxaparin anticoagulation in pregnancy. J Perinatol 30:253–257. , .
- 2005. Anticoagulation in patients with mechanical valves during pregnancy. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 13:30–33. , , , , , .
- 1989. Heparin therapy during pregnancy. Risks to the fetus and the mother. Arch Intern Med 149:2233–2236. , , , , .
- 2012. Anticoagulation in pregnancy. Cardiol Clin 30:395–405. , .
- 2009. Clinical profile and predictors of complications in peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Card Fail 15:645–665. , , , , , , , , .
- 2002. Maternal physiology in pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG , Niebyl JR , Simpson JL , editors. Normal and Problem Pregnancies, 4th ed. New York, Churchill Livingstone, p 63–92. , , , .
- 2003. Lone atrial fibrillation during pregnancy. Int J Cardiol 88:123–124. , , , , , , .
- 2012. Thrombosis in pregnancy: updates in diagnosis and management. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2012:203–207. doi: 10.1182/asheducation 2012. .
- 2005. Low-molecular-weight heparins for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Blood 106:401–407. , .
- 2009. Pregnancy outcomes in women with dilated cardiomyopathy. J Am Coll Cardiol 55:45–52. , , , , , , , .
- 2001. The effect of valvular heart disease on maternal and fetal outcome of pregnancy. J Am Coll Cardiol 37:893–899. , , , , , , , , .
- 2005. Left atrial thrombosis in pregnant women with mitral stenosis and sinus rhythm. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193:501–504. , , , , , , .
- 2005. Trends in the incidence of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum: a 30-year population-based study. Ann Intern Med 143:697–706. , , , , ,
- 2011. Thrombolysis for massive pulmonary embolism in pregnancy. Reports of three cases and follow up over a two year period. Thromb Res 127:58–59. , , , , .
- 2003. Regional anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient: defining the risks. Reg Anesth Pain Med 28:172–197. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2000. First trimester use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in pulmonary embolism. Obstet Gynecol 96:838. , , , .
- 2007. An unusual case of peripartum cardiomyopathy manifesting with multiple thrombo-embolic phenomena. Thromb J 5:18. , , .
- 1986. Risks of anticoagulant therapy in pregnant women with artificial heart valves. N Engl J Med 315:1390–1393. , , , , , .
- 2003. Low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. BJOG 110:139–144. , , .
- 2011. Practice bulletin no. 123: thromboembolism in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 118:718–729. .
- 2007. Prevention and management of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Am J Med 120(10 Suppl. 2):S26–S34. .
- 2009. Venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29:326–331. .
- 2012. Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 55:774–787. .
- 2005a. Thrombosis, thrombophilia and thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol 3:187–197. , , .
- 2005b. Incidence and risk factors for stroke in pregnancy and the puerperium. Obstet Gynecol 106:509–516. , , , .
- 2006a. Acute myocardial infarction in pregnancy: a United States population-based study. Circulation 113:1564–1571. , , , , , .
- 2006b. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum period: incidence, risk factors, and mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol 194:1311–1315. , , , .
- 2005. Peripartum cardiomyopathy complicated by pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 123:121–123. , , .
- 2007. Optic nerve dysfunction in a child following low-dose maternal warfarin exposure. Ophthalmic Genet 28(3):183–184. .
- 1999. APC resistance and other haemostatic variables during pregnancy and puerperium. Thromb Haemost 81:527–531. , , , , .
- 2006. Thrombolytic therapy in pregnancy. J Thromb Thrombolysis 21:271–276. , , , , .
- 2001. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy: a retrospective study of enoxaparin safety in 624 pregnancies. BJOG 108:1134–1140. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2000. Low molecular-weight heparin for prosthetic heart valves: treatment failure. Ann Thorac Surg 69:264–265. , , , , .
- 2013. Anticoagulation in management of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in pregnancy. Clin Lab Med 33:367–376. .
- 2006. Fondaparinux is a safe alternative in case of heparin intolerance during pregnancy. Blood 108:1569–1570. , , , , , .
- 1998. Anticoagulation in pregnancy. In: Elkayam U , Gleicher N , editors. Cardiac Problems in Pregnancy, 3rd ed. New York, Wiley-Liss, p 407–417. .
- 2011. Anticoagulant therapy in pregnant women with mechanical prosthetic heat valves: no easy option. Thromb Res 127:56–60. .
- 2009. Maternal complications and pregnancy outcome in women with mechanical prosthetic heart valves treated with enoxaparin. BJOG 116:1585–1592. , , .
- 1999. Anticoagulation in pregnant women with mechanical heart valve prostheses. Heart 82:23–26. , , , .
- 2011. Peripartum pulmonary embolism. Clin Chest Med 32:147–164. , , .
- 1994. Comparison of subcutaneous unfractionated heparin with a low molecular weight heparin (Fragmin) in patients with venous thromboembolism and contraindication to coumarin. Thromb Haemost 71:7–11. , , , , .
- 2000. Intraventricular thrombosis complicating peripartum idiopathic myocardiopathy. Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 49:309–314. , , , , , , , .
- 2004. Low molecular weight heparin for the prophylaxis of thromboembolism in women with prosthetic mechanical heart valves during pregnancy. Thromb Haemost 92:747–751. , , .
- 2004. Postnatal pre-cordial pain, pulmonary embolism or peripartum cardiomyopathy. Emerg Med J 21:746–747. , , .
- 2009. Use of high intensity adjusted dose low molecular weight heparin in women with mechanical heart valves during pregnancy: a single-center experience. Haematologica 94:1608–1612. , , , , , .
- 2011. ESC Guidelines on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy: the task force on the management of cardiovascular diseases during pregnancy of the European society of cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 32:3147–3197. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2003. Valvular heart disease in pregnancy: clinical practice. N Engl J Med 349:52–59. , .
- 2006. Thrombophilia in pregnancy: a systematic review. Br J Haematol 132:171–196. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2002. Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a case series. BJOG 109:1020–1024. , , , , , .
- 2008. Calibrated automated thrombin generation in normal uncomplicated pregnancy. Thromb Haemost 99:331–337. , , , , , , , .
- 2001. Enoxaparin treatment in women with mechanical heart valves during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:633–637. , , , .
- 2000. Pregnancy outcomes and cardiac complications in women with mechanical, bioprosthetic and homogralt valves. BJOG 107:245–253. , , , , , .
- 1999. Safety of low-molecular-weight heparin in pregnancy: a systematic review. Thromb Haemost 81:668–672. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 1994. Outcome of pregnancy in women with valve prostheses. Br Heart J 71:196–201. , .
- 1995. Placental transfer of low-molecular weight heparin. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 55:93–98. , , .
- 2013. Mechanical heart valve thrombosis in pregnancy. J Heart Valve Dis in press. , , , , .
- 2008. A case of peripartum cardiomyopathy with recurrent left ventricular apical thrombus. Circ J 72:853–854. , , , , , , .
- 1997. Incidence of arrhythmias in normal pregnancy and relation to palpitations, dizziness, and syncope. Am J Cardiol 79:1061–1064. , , , , .
- 2011. Pregnancy with prosthetic heart valves: 30 years' nationwide experience in Denmark. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 40:448–454. , , , .
- 1997. Risk and predictors for pregnancy-related complications in women with heart disease. Circulation 96:2789–2794. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2001. Prospective multicenter study of pregnancy outcomes in women with heart disease. Circulation 104:515–552. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2010. Current state of knowledge on aetiology, diagnosis, management, and therapy of peripartum cardiomyopathy: a position statement from the heart failure association of European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Peripartum Cardiomypathy. Eur J Heart Fail 12:767–778. , , , , , , , , , , et al.
- 2002. Effect of oral anticoagulant during pregnancy with prosthetic heart valve. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann 10:306–309. , , , .
- 2011. Pregnancy in patients with pre-existing cardiomyopathies. J Am Coll Cardiol 58:337–350. , , .
- 2009. Treatment options in massive pulmonary embolism during pregnancy; a case report and review of the literature. Thromb Res 124:1–5. , , , .
- 2005. Massive pulmonary embolism in pregnancy treated with tissue plasminogen activator. Obstet Gynecol 106:1156–1158. , , , .
- 2012. Pregnancy outcomes compared in women with mechanical heart valve replacements anticoagulated with warfarin and enoxaparin in pregnancy. Med J Malaysia 67:591–594. , .
- 1999. Dose-dependent fetal complications of warfarin in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves. J Am Coll Cardiol 33:1637–1641. , , , , , .
- 1997. Low-molecular-weight heparins. N Engl J Med 337:688–698. .
- 2001. Coumarins during pregnancy: long-term effects on growth and development of school-age children. Thromb Haemost 85:609–613. , , , , , , , , .
- 1982. Pregnancy and its outcome in women with and without surgical treatment of congenital heart disease. Am J Cardiol 50:641–651. , , .
- 2008. More reasons why men and women are not the same (gender differences in electrophysiology and arrythmias). Am J Cardiol 101:1291–1296. , .
- 2009. Use of low molecular weight heparin in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves. Am J Cardiol 104:1259–1263. , , , , , , , .