In this study the effects of low-dose aspirin (5 mg/kg) on adhesion molecule and chemokine expression in a hyperlipidemic rat model. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were assigned to two control groups receiving either a regular diet or high-fat diet (HFD) and a treatment group fed HFD with 5 mg/kg aspirin for a 10-week period. Compared with the regular diet control group, the HFD control group had higher body weight, lower levels of high-density lipoprotein, higher concentrations of insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein, but no differences in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. The prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were clearly shortened in the HFD group. That group also had increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), ICAM-2, ICAM-3, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM) and P-selectin in platelets and vascular adhesion protein-1 in lymphocyte and in aorta increased expressions of ICAM-1, ICAM-2, ICAM-3, VCAM, PECAM, E-selectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and CCR2. The HFD rats also had increased PKCα, IκB kinase α (IKKα), p65, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2), and their phosphorylated forms. Low-dose aspirin improved HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia, recovered PT and aPTT, inhibited upregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines and reduced expression of PKCα, IKKα, p65, and MAPKs. Low-dose aspirin ameliorates HFD-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia, and prevents HFD-induced expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine formation.