• metabolic disease;
  • glycosylation;
  • glycan;
  • intellectual disability;
  • microcephaly;
  • macrocephaly;
  • osteopenia

The congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly growing group of inborn errors of metabolism that result from defects in the synthesis of glycans. Glycosylation is a major post-translational protein modification and an estimated 2% of the human genome encodes proteins for glycosylation. The molecular bases for the current 60 disorders, affecting approximately 800 individuals, have been identified, many in the last 5 years. CDG should be considered in any multi-system syndrome or single tissue disorder not explained by the identification of another disorder. The initial clinical presentation varies significantly among individuals, even between affected siblings. However, two thirds of the known CDGs are associated with intellectual disabilities and most affected individuals need support services throughout their lives. Additional disorders of glycosylation are likely to be characterized over time. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2013;17:211–225.