Cognitive neuroscience studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest multiple loci of pathology with respect to both cognitive domains and neural circuitry. Cognitive deficits extend beyond executive functioning to include spatial, temporal, and lower-level “nonexecutive” functions. Atypical functional anatomy extends beyond frontostriatal circuits to include posterior cortices, limbic regions, and the cerebellum. Pathophysiology includes dopaminergic as well as noradrenergic neurotransmitter systems. We review the major insights gained from functional brain imaging studies in ADHD and discuss working hypotheses regarding their neurochemical underpinnings. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:261–267.