Knowledge of normal development of brain–behavior relations plays an important role in understanding how the plasticity of the nervous system can be used to promote recovery of function following brain damage. Aspects of the other articles in this issue are used in justification of the value of such developmental knowledge. Also, the development of amblyopia and its remediation in adulthood is discussed as a model for developing other techniques for ensuring recovery of function after stroke. Although the articles in this issue establish an excellent context for improving actual recovery of function (rather than compensation for deficits), much still needs to be discovered about how we can use developmental knowledge, along with knowledge of the plasticity of the nervous system, to improve remediation techniques. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 54:350-356, 2012.