Rodent pups in distress emit 2 different types of ultrasonic calls. One is given in response to cold; the other in response to unusual tactile stimulation. The effects of these calls on adult behavior can also be classified into 2 categories. Some exert positive effects attracting the adult to the pup in distress and stimulating searching, retrieving, and nest-building. Others cause withdrawal of the adult from the pup thereby causing cesation of rough handling or aggression. The ultrasounds elicited by cold could exert the positive effects whereas those elicited by tactile stimulation produce the withdrawal effects.