• 1
    Singh N, Armstrong DG, Lipsky BA. Preventing foot ulcers in patients with diabetes. JAMA 2005; 293(2): 217228.
  • 2
    Apelqvist J, Larsson J, Agardh CD. Long-term prognosis for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. J Intern Med 1993; 233(6): 485491.
  • 3
    Vileikyte L. Diabetic foot ulcers: a quality of life issue. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2001; 17(4): 246249.
  • 4
    Nabuurs-Franssen MH, Huijberts MS, Nieuwenhuijzen Kruseman AC, Willems J, Schaper NC. Health-related quality of life of diabetic foot ulcer patients and their caregivers. Diabetologia 2005; 48(9): 19061910.
  • 5
    Epidemiology of lower extremity amputation in centres in Europe, North America and East Asia: the Global Lower Extremity Amputation Study Group. Br J Surg 2000; 87(3): 328337.
  • 6
    Pecoraro RE, Reiber GE, Burgess EM. Pathways to diabetic limb amputation. Basis for prevention. Diabetes Care 1990; 13(5): 513521.
  • 7
    Margolis DJ, Allen-Taylor L, Hoffstad O, Berlin JA. Diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers and amputation. Wound Repair Regen 2005; 13(3): 230236.
  • 8
    Cavanagh PR, Lipsky BA, Bradbury AW, Botek G. Treatment for diabetic foot ulcers. Lancet 2005; 366(9498): 17251735.
  • 9
    Jeffcoate WJ, Harding KG. Diabetic foot ulcers. Lancet 2003; 361(9368): 15451551.
  • 10
    Ragnarson Tennvall G, Apelqvist J. Health-economic consequences of diabetic foot lesions. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39(Suppl 2): S132139.
  • 11
    Boulton AJ, Vileikyte L, Ragnarson-Tennvall G, Apelqvist J. The global burden of diabetic foot disease. Lancet 2005; 366(9498): 17191724.
  • 12
    World Health Organization (Europe) and International Diabetes Federation (Europe). Diabetes care and research in Europe: the Saint Vincent declaration. Diabet Med 1990; 7(4): 360.
  • 13
    IDF clinical guidelines task force. Global Guideline for Type 2 Diabetes. International Diabetes Federation: Brussels, 2005.
  • 14
    Frykberg RG, Zgonis T, Armstrong DG, Driver VR, Giurini JM, Kravitz SR, Landsman AS, Lavery LA, Moore JC, Schuberth JM, Wukich DK, Andersen C, Vanore JV. Diabetic foot disorders. A clinical practice guideline (2006 revision). J Foot Ankle Surg 2006; 45(5 Suppl): S166.
  • 15
    American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes—2007. Diabetes Care 2007; 30(Suppl 1): S4S41.
  • 16
    Edmonds ME, Foster AV. Diabetic foot ulcers. BMJ 2006; 332(7538): 407410.
  • 17
    Icks A, Haastert B, Trautner C, Giani G, Glaeske G, Hoffmann F. Incidence of lower-limb amputations in the diabetic compared to the non-diabetic population. Findings from nationwide insurance data, Germany, 2005–2007. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2009; 117(9): 500504.
  • 18
    Canavan RJ, Unwin NC, Kelly WF, Connolly VM. Diabetes- and nondiabetes-related lower extremity amputation incidence before and after the introduction of better organized diabetes foot care: continuous longitudinal monitoring using a standard method. Diabetes Care 2008; 31(3): 459463.
  • 19
    Armstrong DG, Harkless LB. Outcomes of preventative care in a diabetic foot specialty clinic. J Foot Ankle Surg 1998; 37(6): 460466.
  • 20
    Boulton AJ. Why bother educating the multi-disciplinary team and the patient—the example of prevention of lower extremity amputation in diabetes. Patient Educ Couns 1995; 26(1–3): 183188.
  • 21
    Edmonds ME, Van Acker K, Foster AV. Education and the diabetic foot. Diabet Med 1996; 13(Suppl 1): S6164.
  • 22
    Larsson J, Apelqvist J. Towards less amputations in diabetic patients. Incidence, causes, cost, treatment, and prevention—a review. Acta Orthop Scand 1995; 66(2): 181192.
  • 23
    Levin ME. Preventing amputation in the patient with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1995; 18(10): 13831394.
  • 24
    O'Meara S, Cullum N, Majid M, Sheldon T. Systematic reviews of wound care management: (3) antimicrobial agents for chronic wounds; (4) diabetic foot ulceration. Health Technol Assess 2000; 4(21): 1237.
  • 25
    Mason J, O'Keeffe C, McIntosh A, Hutchinson A, Booth A, Young RJ. A systematic review of foot ulcer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. I: prevention. Diabet Med 1999; 16(10): 801812.
  • 26
    Mayfield JA, Reiber GE, Sanders LJ, Janisse D, Pogach LM. Preventive foot care in people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998; 21(12): 21612177.
  • 27
    Dorresteijn JA, Kriegsman DM, Assendelft WJ, Valk GD. Patient education for preventing diabetic foot ulceration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (5): CD001488.
  • 28
    Dorresteijn JA, Kriegsman DM, Valk GD. Complex interventions for preventing diabetic foot ulceration. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (1): CD007610.
  • 29
    Bloomgarden ZT, Karmally W, Metzger MJ, Brothers M, Nechemias C, Bookman J, Faierman D, Ginsberg-Fellner F, Rayfield E, Brown WV. Randomized, controlled trial of diabetic patient education: improved knowledge without improved metabolic status. Diabetes Care 1987; 10(3): 263272.
  • 30
    Mazzuca SA, Moorman NH, Wheeler ML, Norton JA, Fineberg NS, Vinicor F, Cohen SJ, Clark CM Jr. The diabetes education study: a controlled trial of the effects of diabetes patient education. Diabetes Care 1986; 9(1): 110.
  • 31
    Rettig BA, Shrauger DG, Recker RR, Gallagher TF, Wiltse H. A randomized study of the effects of a home diabetes education program. Diabetes Care 1986; 9(2): 173178.
  • 32
    Corbett CF. A randomized pilot study of improving foot care in home health patients with diabetes. Diabetes Educ 2003; 29(2): 273282.
  • 33
    Borges WJ, Ostwald SK. Improving foot self-care behaviors with Pies Sanos. West J Nurs Res 2008; 30(3): 325341; discussion 342–329.
  • 34
    Barth R, Campbell LV, Allen S, Jupp JJ, Chisholm DJ. Intensive education improves knowledge, compliance, and foot problems in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 1991; 8(2): 111117.
  • 35
    Frank KL. Self-management of foot care for patients 65 years of age or older with diabetes. Indiana University School of Nursing, Dec 2003.
  • 36
    Kruger S, Guthrie D. Foot care: knowledge retention and self-care practices. Diabetes Educ 1992; 18(6): 487490.
  • 37
    Lincoln NB, Radford KA, Game FL, Jeffcoate WJ. Education for secondary prevention of foot ulcers in people with diabetes: a randomised controlled trial. Diabetologia 2008; 51(11): 19541961.
  • 38
    Malone JM, Snyder M, Anderson G, Bernhard VM, Holloway GA Jr, Bunt TJ. Prevention of amputation by diabetic education. Am J Surg 1989; 158(6): 520523; discussion 523–524.
  • 39
    Hamalainen H, Rönnemaa T, Toikka T, Liukkonen I. Long-term effects of one year of intensified podiatric activities on foot-care knowledge and self-care habits in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Educ 1998; 24(6): 734740.
  • 40
    Rönnemaa T, Hamalainen H, Toikka T, Liukkonen I. Evaluation of the impact of podiatrist care in the primary prevention of foot problems in diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 1997; 20(12): 18331837.
  • 41
    Renders CM, Valk GD, Griffin S, Wagner EH, Eijk JT, Assendelft WJ. Interventions to improve the management of diabetes mellitus in primary care, outpatient and community settings. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (1): CD001481.
  • 42
    McAuley L. Data collection checklist. Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC), June 2002. Available from [4 June 2011].
  • 43
    Litzelman DK, Slemenda CW, Langefeld CD, Hays LM, Welch MA, Bild DE, Ford ES, Vinicor F. Reduction of lower extremity clinical abnormalities in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119(1): 3641.
  • 44
    Donohoe ME, Fletton JA, Hook A, Powell R, Robinson I, Stead JW, Sweeney K, Taylor R, Tooke JE. Improving foot care for people with diabetes mellitus—a randomized controlled trial of an integrated care approach. Diabet Med 2000; 17(8): 581587.
  • 45
    McCabe CJ, Stevenson RC, Dolan AM. Evaluation of a diabetic foot screening and protection programme. Diabet Med 1998; 15(1): 8084.
  • 46
    McMurray SD, Johnson G, Davis S, McDougall K. Diabetes education and care management significantly improve patient outcomes in the dialysis unit. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40(3): 566575.
  • 47
    McMurray SD, McDougall K. Improving diabetes foot care in the dialysis facility. Nephrol News Issues 2003; 17(10): 57, 60–51, 65–56.
  • 48
    Jeffcoate WJ. Stratification of foot risk predicts the incidence of new foot disease, but do we yet know that the adoption of routine screening reduces it? Diabetologia 2011; 54(5): 991993.
  • 49
    Klenerman L, McCabe C, Cogley D, Crerand S, Laing P, White M. Screening for patients at risk of diabetic foot ulceration in a general diabetic outpatient clinic. Diabet Med 1996; 13(6): 561563.