• 1
    Schaper NC, Apelqvist J, Bakker K. The international consensus and practical guidelines on the management and prevention of the diabetic foot. Curr Diab Rep 2003; 3(6): 475479.
  • 2
    Boulton AJ, Vileikyte L, Ragnarson-Tennvall G, Apelqvist J. The global burden of diabetic foot disease. Lancet 2005; 366: 17191724.
  • 3
    Prompers L, Schaper N, Apelqvist J, et al. Prediction of outcome in individuals with diabetic foot ulcers: focus on between individuals with and without peripheral vascular disease. The EURODIALE study. Diabetologia 2008; 51: 747755.
  • 4
    Apelqvist J, Larsson J. What is the most effective way to reduce incidence of amputation in the diabetic foot? Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2000; 16(Suppl 1): S75S83.
  • 5
    Welborn TA, Knuiman M, McCann V, Stanton K, Constable IJ. Clinical macrovascular disease in Caucasoid diabetic subjects: logistic regression analysis of risk variables. Diabetologia 1984; 27: 568573.
  • 6
    Walters DP, Gatling W, Mullee MA, Hill RD. The prevalence, detection, and epidemiological correlates of peripheral vascular disease: a comparison of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in an English community. Diabet Med 1992; 9: 710715.
  • 7
    Beks PJ, Mackaay AJ, de Neeling JN, de Vries H, Bouter LM, Heine RJ. Peripheral arterial disease in relation to glycaemic level in an elderly Caucasian population: the Hoorn study. Diabetologia 1995; 38: 8696.
  • 8
    American Diabetes Association. Peripheral arterial disease in people with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2003 Dec; 26(12): 33333341.
  • 9
    Prompers L, Huijberts M, Apelqvist J, et al. High prevalence of ischaemia, infection and serious comorbidity in patients with diabetic foot disease in Europe. Baseline results from the Eurodiale study. Diabetologia 2007; 50: 1825.
  • 10
    Jeffcoate WJ, Chipchase SY, Ince P, Game FL. Assessing the outcome of the management of diabetic foot ulcers using ulcer-related and person-related measures. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 17841787.
  • 11
    Beckert S, Witte M, Wicke C, Königsrainer A, Coerper S. A new wound-based severity score for diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care 2006; 29: 988992.
  • 12
    Dolan NC, Liu K, Criqui MH, et al. Peripheral artery disease, diabetes, and reduced lower extremity functioning. Diabetes Care 2002; 25: 113120.
  • 13
    Wattanakit K, Folsom AR, Selvin E, Coresh J, Hirsch AT, Weatherley BD. Kidney function and risk of peripheral arterial disease: results from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 629636.
  • 14
    Prompers L, Huijberts M, Apelqvist J, et al. Delivery of care to diabetic patients with foot ulcers in daily practice: results of the Eurodiale Study, a prospective cohort study. Diabet Med 2008; 25: 700707.
  • 15
    Moulik PK, Mtonga R, Gill GV. Amputation and mortality in new-onset diabetic foot ulcers stratified by etiology. Diabetes Care 2003; 26: 491494.
  • 16
    Ruiter MS, van Golde JM, Schaper NC, Stehouwer CD, Huijberts MS. Diabetes impairs arteriogenesis in the peripheral circulation: review of molecular mechanisms. Clin Sci (Lond) 2010 Jun 8; 119(6): 225238.
  • 17
    Graziani L, Silvestro A, Bertone V, et al. Vascular involvement in diabetic subjects with ischemic foot ulcer: a new morphologic categorization of disease severity. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2007 Apr; 33(4): 453460.
  • 18
    Norgren L, Hiatt WR, Dormandy JA, et al. Inter-Society Consensus for the Management of Peripheral Arterial Disease (TASC II). J Vasc Surg 2007; 45(Suppl S): S5S67.
  • 19
    Faglia E, Mantero M, Caminiti M, et al. Extensive use of peripheral angioplasty, particularly infrapopliteal, in the treatment of ischaemic diabetic foot ulcers: clinical results of a multicentric study of 221 consecutive diabetic subjects. J Intern Med 2002; 252: 225232.
  • 20
    Jacqueminet S, Hartemann-Heurtier A, Izzillo R, et al. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in severe diabetic foot ischemia: outcomes and prognostic factors. Diabetes Metab 2005; 31: 370375.
  • 21
    Bollinger A, Breddin K, Hess H, et al. Semiquantitative assessment of lower limb atherosclerosis from routine angiographic images. Atherosclerosis 1981 Feb-Mar; 38(3–4): 339346.
  • 22
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG; PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ 2009 Jul 21; 339: b2535.
  • 23
    Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network 50: a guideline developer's handbook. Accessed 6th February 2011.
  • 24
    AhChong AK, Chiu KM, Wong MW, Hui HK, Yip AW. Diabetes and the outcome of infrainguinal bypass for critical limb ischaemia. ANZ J Surg 2004 Mar; 74(3): 129133.
  • 25
    Alexandrescu V, Hubermont G, Philips Y, et al. Combined primary subintimal and endoluminal angioplasty for ischaemic inferior-limb ulcers in diabetic patients: 5-year practice in a multidisciplinary ‘diabetic-foot’ service. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009 Apr; 37(4): 448456.
  • 26
    Bargellini I, Petruzzi P, Scatena A, et al.Primary infrainguinal subintimal angioplasty in diabetic patients. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2008 Jul-Aug; 31(4): 713722.
  • 27
    Davidson JT 3rd, Callis JT. Arterial reconstruction of vessels in the foot and ankle. Ann Surg 1993 Jun; 217(6): 699708.
  • 28
    Dosluoglu HH, Cherr GS, Lall P, Harris LM, Dryjski ML. Peroneal artery-only runoff following endovascular revascularizations is effective for limb salvage in patients with tissue loss. J Vasc Surg 2008 Jul; 48(1): 137143.
  • 29
    Dorweiler B, Neufang A, Schmiedt W, Oelert H. Pedal arterial bypass for limb salvage in patients with diabetes mellitus. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2002 Oct; 24(4): 309313.
  • 30
    Faglia E, Dalla Paola L, Clerici G, et al. Peripheral angioplasty as the first-choice revascularization procedure in diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia: prospective study of 993 consecutive patients hospitalized and followed between 1999 and 2003. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2005 Jun; 29(6): 620627.
  • 31
    Faglia E, Clerici G, Clerissi J, et al. Long-term prognosis of diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia: a population-based cohort study. Diabetes Care 2009 May; 32(5): 822827.
  • 32
    Ferraresi R, Centola M, Ferlini M, et al. Long-term outcomes after angioplasty of isolated, below-the-knee arteries in diabetic patients with critical limb ischaemia. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2009 Mar; 37(3): 336342.
  • 33
    Gargiulo M, Maioli F, Ceccacci T, et al. What's next after optimal infrapopliteal angioplasty? Clinical and ultrasonographic results of a prospective single-center study. J Endovasc Ther 2008 Jun; 15(3): 363369.
  • 34
    Gibbons GW, Burgess AM, Guadagnoli E, et al. Return to well-being and function after infrainguinal revascularization. J Vasc Surg 1995 Jan; 21(1): 3544.
  • 35
    Hering J, Angelkort B, Keck N, Wilde J, Amann B. Long-term outcome of successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the fibular artery in diabetic foot syndrome and single-vessel calf perfusion depends on doppler wave pattern at the forefoot. Vasa 2010 Feb; 39(1): 6775.
  • 36
    Hertzer NR, Bena JF, Karafa MT. A personal experience with the influence of diabetes and other factors on the outcome of infrainguinal bypass grafts for occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg 2007 Aug; 46(2): 271279.
  • 37
    Hughes K, Domenig CM, Hamdan AD, et al. Bypass to plantar and tarsal arteries: an acceptable approach to limb salvage. J Vasc Surg 2004 Dec; 40(6): 11491157.
  • 38
    Isaksson L, Lundgren F. Prognostic factors for failure of primary patency within a year of bypass to the foot in patients with diabetes and critical ischaemia. Eur J Surg 2000 Feb; 166(2): 123128.
  • 39
    Jämsén T, Manninen H, Tulla H, Matsi P. The final outcome of primary infrainguinal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in 100 consecutive patients with chronic critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2002 May; 13(5): 455463.
  • 40
    Johnson BL, Glickman MH, Bandyk DF, Esses GE. Failure of foot salvage in patients with end-stage renal disease after surgical revascularization. J Vasc Surg 1995 Sep; 22(3): 280285.
  • 41
    Kalra M, Gloviczki P, Bower TC, et al. Limb salvage after successful pedal bypass grafting is associated with improved long-term survival. J Vasc Surg 2001 Jan; 33(1): 616.
  • 42
    Kandzari DE, Kiesz RS, Allie D, et al. Procedural and clinical outcomes with catheter-based plaque excision in critical limb ischemia. J Endovasc Ther 2006 Feb; 13(1): 1222.
  • 43
    Leers SA, Reifsnyder T, Delmonte R, Caron M. Realistic expectations for pedal bypass grafts in patients with end-stage renal disease. J Vasc Surg 1998 Dec; 28(6): 976980.
  • 44
    Malmstedt J, Leander K, Wahlberg E, Karlström L, Alfredsson L, Swedenborg J. Outcome after leg bypass surgery for critical limb ischemia is poor in patients with diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Diabetes Care 2008 May; 31(5): 887892.
  • 45
    Mills JL, Gahtan V, Fujitani RM, Taylor SM, Bandyk DF. The utility and durability of vein bypass grafts originating from the popliteal artery for limb salvage. Am J Surg 1994 Dec; 168(6): 646650.
  • 46
    Mohan CR, Hoballah JJ, Martinasevic M, et al. Revascularization of the ischemic diabetic foot using popliteal artery inflow. Int Angiol 1996 Jun; 15(2): 138143.
  • 47
    Owens CD, Ho KJ, Kim S, et al. Refinement of survival prediction in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass surgery: stratification by chronic kidney disease classification. J Vasc Surg 2007 May; 45(5): 944952.
  • 48
    Panneton JM, Gloviczki P, Bower TC, Rhodes JM, Canton LG, Toomey BJ. Pedal bypass for limb salvage: impact of diabetes on long-term outcome. Ann Vasc Surg 2000 Nov; 14(6): 640647.
  • 49
    Pomposelli FB Jr, Marcaccio EJ, Gibbons GW, et al. Dorsalis pedis arterial bypass: durable limb salvage for foot ischemia in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Vasc Surg 1995 Mar; 21(3): 375384.
  • 50
    Pomposelli FB, Kansal N, Hamdan AD, et al. A decade of experience with dorsalis pedis artery bypass: analysis of outcome in more than 1000 cases. J Vasc Surg 2003 Feb; 37(2): 307315.
  • 51
    Pua U, Wong DE. Angioplasty in critical limb ischaemia: one-year limb salvage results. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2008 Mar; 37(3): 224229.
  • 52
    Ramdev P, Rayan SS, Sheahan M, et al. A decade experience with infrainguinal revascularization in a dialysis-dependent patient population. J Vasc Surg 2002 Nov; 36(5): 969974.
  • 53
    Reed AB, Conte MS, Belkin M, Mannick JA, Whittemore AD, Donaldson MC. Usefulness of autogenous bypass grafts originating distal to the groin. J Vasc Surg 2002 Jan; 35(1): 4854.
  • 54
    Rosenblum BI, Pomposelli FB Jr, Giurini JM, et al. Maximizing foot salvage by a combined approach to foot ischemia and neuropathic ulceration in patients with diabetes. A 5-year experience. Diabetes Care 1994 Sep; 17(9): 983987.
  • 55
    Saltzberg SS, Pomposelli FB Jr, Belfield AK, et al. Outcome of lower-extremity revascularization in patients younger than 40 years in a predominantly diabetic population. J Vasc Surg 2003 Nov; 38(5): 10561059.
  • 56
    Schneider JR, Walsh DB, McDaniel MD, Zwolak RM, Besso SR, Cronenwett JL. Pedal bypass versus tibial bypass with autogenous vein: a comparison of outcome and hemodynamic results. J Vasc Surg 1993 Jun; 17(6): 10291038.
  • 57
    Schneider PA, Caps MT, Ogawa DY, Hayman ES. Intraoperative superficial femoral artery balloon angioplasty and popliteal to distal bypass graft: an option for combined open and endovascular treatment of diabetic gangrene. J Vasc Surg 2001 May; 33(5): 955962.
  • 58
    Sigala F, Georgopoulos S, Langer S, et al. Outcome of infrainguinal revascularization for critical limb ischemia in diabetics with end stage renal disease. Vasa 2006 Feb; 35(1): 1520.
  • 59
    Söderström M, Arvela E, Albäck A, Aho PS, Lepäntalo M. Healing of ischaemic tissue lesions after infrainguinal bypass surgery for critical leg ischaemia. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2008 Jul; 36(1): 9095.
  • 60
    Stonebridge PA, Tsoukas AI, Pomposelli FB Jr, et al. Popliteal-to-distal bypass grafts for limb salvage in diabetics. Eur J Vasc Surg 1991 Jun; 5(3): 265269.
  • 61
    Tannenbaum GA, Pomposelli FB Jr, Marcaccio EJ, et al. Safety of vein bypass grafting to the dorsal pedal artery in diabetic patients with foot infections. J Vasc Surg 1992 Jun; 15(6): 982988.
  • 62
    Taylor LM Jr, Porter JM. The clinical course of diabetics who require emergent foot surgery because of infection or ischemia. J Vasc Surg 1987 Nov; 6(5): 454459.
  • 63
    Toursarkissian B, Stefanidis D, Hagino RT, et al. Early duplex-derived hemodynamic parameters after lower extremity bypass in diabetics: implications for mid-term outcomes. Ann Vasc Surg 2002 Sep; 16(5): 601607.
  • 64
    Toursarkissian B, Jones WT, D'Ayala MD, et al. Does the efficacy of dorsalis pedis artery bypasses vary among diabetic patients of different ethnic backgrounds? Vasc Endovascular Surg 2002 May-Jun; 36(3): 207212.
  • 65
    Uccioli L, Gandini R, Giurato L, et al. Long-term outcomes of diabetic patients with critical limb ischaemia followed in a tertiary referral diabetic foot clinic. Diabetes Care 2010 May; 33(5): 977982.
  • 66
    Verhelst R, Bruneau M, Nicolas AL, et al. Popliteal-to-distal bypass grafts for limb salvage. Ann Vasc Surg 1997 Sep; 11(5): 505509.
  • 67
    Werneck CC, Lindsay TF. Tibial angioplasty for limb salvage in high-risk patients and cost analysis. Ann Vasc Surg 2009 Sep-Oct; 23(5): 554559.
  • 68
    Woelfle KD, Lange G, Mayer H, Bruijnen H, Loeprecht H. Distal vein graft reconstruction for isolated tibioperoneal vessel occlusive disease in diabetics with critical foot ischaemia—does it work? Eur J Vasc Surg 1993 Jul; 7(4): 409413.
  • 69
    Wölfle KD, Bruijnen H, Reeps C, et al. Tibioperoneal arterial lesions and critical foot ischaemia: successful management by the use of short vein grafts and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Vasa 2000 Aug; 29(3): 207214.
  • 70
    Woelfle KD, Bruijnen H, Loeprecht H. Infrapopliteal arterial occlusive disease in diabetics with critical foot ischaemia: The role of distal origin bypass grafts. Vasa 2001; Suppl.58: 4043.
  • 71
    Zayed H, Halawa M, Maillardet L, Sidhu PS, Edmonds M, Rashid H. Improving limb salvage rate in diabetic patients with critical leg ischaemia using a multidisciplinary approach. Int J Clin Pract 2009 Jun; 63(6): 855858.
  • 72
    Gershater MA, Löndahl M, Nyberg P, et al. Complexity of factors related to outcome of neuropathic and neuroischaemic/ischaemic diabetic foot ulcers: a cohort study. Diabetologia 2009 Mar; 52(3): 398407.
  • 73
    Armstrong DG, Lavery LA, Harkless LB. Validation of a diabetic wound classification system. The contribution of depth, infection, and ischemia to risk of amputation. Diabetes Care 1998 May; 21(5): 855859.
  • 74
    LoGerfo FW, Coffman JD. Current concepts. Vascular and microvascular disease of the foot in diabetes. Implications for foot care. N Engl J Med 1984 Dec 20; 311(25): 16151619.
  • 75
    Lepäntalo M, Mätzke S. Outcome of unreconstructed chronic critical leg ischaemia. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 1996 Feb; 11(2): 153157.
  • 76
    Marston WA, Davies SW, Armstrong B, et al. Natural history of limbs with arterial insufficiency and chronic ulceration treated without revascularization. J Vasc Surg 2006 Jul; 44(1): 108114.
  • 77
    Most RS, Sinnock P. The epidemiology of lower extremity amputations in diabetic individuals. Diabetes Care 1983 Jan-Feb; 6(1): 8791.
  • 78
    Waugh NR. Amputations in diabetic patients—a review of rates, relative risks and resource use. Community Med 1988 Nov; 10(4): 279288.
  • 79
    Ndip A, Lavery LA, Boulton AJ. Diabetic foot disease in people with advanced nephropathy and those on renal dialysis. Curr Diab Rep 2010 Aug; 10(4): 283290.
  • 80
    Karthikesalingam A, Holt PJ, Moxey P, Jones KG, Thompson MM, Hinchliffe RJ. A systematic review of scoring systems for diabetic foot ulcers. Diabet Med 2010 May; 27(5): 544549.
  • 81
    Rutherford RB, Baker JD, Ernst C, et al. Recommended standards for reports dealing with lower extremity ischemia: revised version. J Vasc Surg 1997 Sep; 26(3): 517538.
  • 82
    Albers M, Romiti M, Brochado-Neto FC, De Luccia N, Pereira CA. Meta-analysis of popliteal-to-distal vein bypass grafts for critical ischemia. J Vasc Surg 2006 Mar; 43(3): 498503.
  • 83
    Romiti M, Albers M, Brochado-Neto FC, Durazzo AE, Pereira CA, De Luccia N. Meta-analysis of infrapopliteal angioplasty for chronic critical limb ischemia. J Vasc Surg 2008 May; 47(5): 975981.
  • 84
    Adam DJ, Beard JD, Cleveland T, et al. Bypass versus angioplasty in severe ischaemia of the leg (BASIL): multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 19251934.