Should diabetic ketosis without acidosis be included in ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus?
The incidence of ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is very low except for people of sub-Saharan African origin and African Americans. However, there also are some type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic ketosis without acidosis (DKWA). We question whether DKWA should be included as a subtype of ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes mellitus and compared the clinical characteristics of DKWA and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) patients.
The study population consisted of 594 consecutive unrelated Chinese inpatients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Demographic and clinical characteristics (age, gender, family history of diabetes, body mass index, blood pressure and plasma lipid parameters) were recorded. The patients were divided into ketosis-resistant diabetes (KRD), DKWA and DKA groups on the basis of urinary ketones, blood pH and bicarbonate levels. The blood glucose and c-peptide levels of the patients were also evaluated.
The prevalence of KRD, DKWA and DKA were 78.33%, 19.72% and 1.95%, respectively, in the study population. The clinical characteristics of patients with DKWA group patients were similar to those with DKA, except that DKA patients had higher blood glucose and deteriorated β cell function.
Diabetic ketosis without acidosis and DKA patients share similar clinical characteristics; DKWA should be considered ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the prevalence of ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes might be underestimated. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.