Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes
Article first published online: 2 JUL 2007
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews
Volume 24, Issue 1, pages 59–63, January 2008
How to Cite
Funda, D. P., Kaas, A., Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H. and Buschard, K. (2008), Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev., 24: 59–63. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.748
- Issue published online: 11 DEC 2007
- Article first published online: 2 JUL 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 18 MAR 2007
- Manuscript Revised: 14 JAN 2007
- Manuscript Received: 4 SEP 2006
- Danish Diabetes Association. Grant Number: (21/2005)
- Hovedstadens Sygehusfællesskab. Grant Number: (961503094)
- Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences. Grant Number: (IAA5020405)
- Grant Agency of the Czech Republic. Grant Number: (303/061329)
- Institute of Microbiology, Czech Acad. Sci. Grant Number: (SciAV0Z50200510)
- type 1 diabetes;
- non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice;
- environmental factors
Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice.
Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals.
A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p < 0.0001) was observed in NOD mice fed gluten-free diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n = 33). Surprisingly, gluten+ diet also prevented diabetes incidence, even at the level found with the gluten-free diet (p < 0.0001, 5.9%, n = 34). The minority of mice, which developed diabetes on all the three diabetes-protective (gluten+, gluten-free, Pregestimil) diets, did that slightly later compared to those on the standard diet. Lower insulitis score compared to control mice was found in non-diabetic NOD mice on the gluten-free, and to a lesser extent also gluten+ and Pregestimil diets. No substantial differences in the number of CD3+, TCR-γδ+, and IgA+ cells in the small intestine were documented.
Gluten+ diet prevents diabetes in NOD mice at the level found with the non-purified gluten-free diet. Possible mechanisms of the enigmatic, dual effect of dietary gluten on the development of T1D are discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.