• adiponectin;
  • metabolic syndrome;
  • type 2 diabetes;
  • insulin resistance



Although adiponectin is generally known as a predictor of metabolic syndrome, potential of adiponectin as a predictor for metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes is debated. The purpose of this study is to determine the association between adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Adiponectin and the risk of metabolic syndrome were examined among 1013 type 2 diabetes patients who visited Huh's Diabetes Center from January 2003 to June 2006. Adiponectin levels were classified into quartile groups, and metabolic syndrome was defined according to the standard of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III. Insulin sensitivity was directly assessed using the short insulin tolerance test (SITT) (Kitt: %/ min).


Adiponectin was significantly correlated with metabolic syndrome components. The age-adjusted correlations between adiponectin and clinical parameters including metabolic components were significant; adiponectin was negatively correlated with waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride, and positively correlated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Subjects with metabolic syndrome showed lower adiponectin levels than those without metabolic syndrome. After multivariate adjustment, participants with lower adiponectin levels also had a higher risk for metabolic syndrome (OR for lowest quartiles 2.21; 95% CI, 1.51–3.24). Metabolic syndrome risk was stronger among those with low adiponectin and severe insulin resistance simultaneously. This study has shown additive effects of adiponectin and insulin resistance on metabolic syndrome.


In type 2 diabetic patients, the adiponectin was a useful predictor of metabolic syndrome independent of potential confounding variables. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.