Reconstruction of dopaminergic neural network and locomotion function in planarian regenerates

Authors

  • Kaneyasu Nishimura,

    1. Department of Neurobiology, 21st Century COE Program, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
    2. Group for Evolutionary Regeneration Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
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  • Yoshihisa Kitamura,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Neurobiology, 21st Century COE Program, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
    • Department of Neurobiology, 21st Century COE Program, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
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  • Takeshi Inoue,

    1. Group for Evolutionary Regeneration Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
    Current affiliation:
    1. KAN Research Institute, 6-7-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
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  • Yoshihiko Umesono,

    1. Group for Evolutionary Regeneration Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
    2. Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
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  • Shozo Sano,

    1. Group for Evolutionary Regeneration Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
    2. Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
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  • Kanji Yoshimoto,

    1. Department of Legal Medicine, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan
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  • Masatoshi Inden,

    1. Department of Neurobiology, 21st Century COE Program, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
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  • Kazuyuki Takata,

    1. Department of Neurobiology, 21st Century COE Program, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
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  • Takashi Taniguchi,

    1. Department of Neurobiology, 21st Century COE Program, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8414, Japan
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  • Shun Shimohama,

    1. Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan
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  • Kiyokazu Agata

    Corresponding author
    1. Group for Evolutionary Regeneration Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
    2. Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan
    • Group for Evolutionary Regeneration Biology, Center for Developmental Biology, RIKEN Kobe, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
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Abstract

Planarian, an invertebrate flatworm, has a high capacity for regeneration when compared with other worms and animals. We show here for the first time that the reconstructed dopamine (DA) neural network regulates locomotion and behavior in planarian regenerates. The gene encoding tyrosine hydroxylase in the planarian Dugesia japonica (DjTH) was identified. DjTH protein was coexpressed with aromatic amino acid decarboxylase-like A (DjAADCA) in the planarian central nervous system (CNS). In addition, DjTH-knockdown planarians lost the ability to synthesize DA, but showed no change in 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis. When the planarian body was amputated, DjTH-positive neurons were regenerated in the brain newly rebuilt from the tail piece at Day 3, and the DjTH-positive axonal and dendritic neural network in the CNS (dopaminergic tiara) was reconstructed at Days 5–7. At that time, autonomic locomotion and methamphetamine-induced hyperkinesia were also suppressed in DjTH-knockdown planarians. Planarian locomotion and behavior seem to be regulated in both cilia- and muscle-dependent manners. In DjTH-knockdown planarians, muscle-mediated locomotion and behavior were significantly attenuated. These results suggest that DA neurons play a key role in the muscle-mediated movement in planarians. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007.

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