1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?
Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Drug Testing and Analysis
Special Issue: Stable isotope ratio analysis in sports anti-doping
Volume 4, Issue 12, pages 986–990, December 2012
How to Cite
Zhang, Y., Woods, R. M., Breitbach, Z. S. and Armstrong, D. W. (2012), 1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) in supplements and geranium products: natural or synthetic?. Drug Test Analysis, 4: 986–990. doi: 10.1002/dta.1368
- Issue published online: 18 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 12 JUL 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 APR 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 6 APR 2012
- Manuscript Received: 20 MAR 2012
- GC analysis;
- HPLC analysis;
- Synthetic versus natural;
- Geranium oil
1,3-Dimethylamylamine (DMAA) is a stimulant existing in various pre-workout supplements and often labelled as part of geranium plants. The safety and origin of DMAA in these supplements is the subject of intense debate. In this study, the enantiomeric and diastereomeric ratios of two different known synthetic DMAA compounds, as well as the total concentrations of DMAA and its stereoisomeric ratios in 13 different supplements, were determined by gas chromatography. The stereoisomeric ratios of DMAA in the synthetic standards and in all the commercial supplements were indistinguishable. Eight different commercial geranium extracts of different geographical origins (China and the Middle East) were examined for the presence of DMAA by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). No DMAA was detected in any of the eight geranium products with a limit of detection of 10 parts per billion (w/w). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.