A simple and highly sensitive method that involves miniaturized hollow fibre assisted liquid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector was developed for the determination of trace concentration of sufentanil and alfentanil in biological samples. These drugs were extracted from 5 ml of aqueous solution with pH 10.0 into an organic extracting solvent (1-octanol) impregnated in the pores and lumen of a hollow fibre. After extraction for a prescribed time, 2.0 µl of the extraction solvent was injected directly in to the GC injection port. Under the optimized conditions, (1-octanol as extracting solvent, stirring rate of 700 rpm, 15% (w/v) salt addition, pH 10.0 and 25 min sampling time at 50 °C) large enrichment factors of 535 and 420 were achieved for sufentanil and alfentanil, respectively. Dynamic linear ranges were in the range of 0.05 to 500 ng/ml for sufentanil and 0.1 to 500 ng/ml for alfentanil. Limits of detection 0.01 and 0.02 ng/ml were obtained for sufentanil and alfentanil, respectively. The percent relative intra-day and inter-day standard deviations were found to be less than 8.4% (n = 5). Finally, this method was successfully applied for the separation, preconcentration and determination of trace concentration of sufentanil and alfentanil in plasma and urine samples. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.