• 1
    G.L. Henderson. Mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair. Forensic Sci. Int. 1993, 63, 19.
  • 2
    F. Pragst, V. Auwaerter, F. Sporkert, K. Spiegel. Analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters in hair as possible markers of chronically elevated alcohol consumption by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Forensic Sci. Int. 2001, 121, 76.
  • 3
    J. Thorspecken, G. Skopp, L. Pötsch. In vitro contamination of hair by marijuana smoke. Clin. Chem. 2004, 50, 596.
  • 4
    F. Pragst, M.A. Balikova. State of the art in hair analysis for detection of drug and alcohol abuse. Clin. Chim. Acta 2006, 370, 17.
  • 5
    P.R. Stout, J.D. Ropero-Miller, M.R. Baylor, J.M. Mitchell. External contamination of hair with cocaine: Evaluation of external cocaine contamination and development of performance-testing materials. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2006, 30, 490.
  • 6
    R. Wennig. Potential problems with the interpretation of hair analysis results. Forensic Sci. Int. 2000, 107, 5.
  • 7
    Society of hair testing. Forensic Sci. Int. 1997, 84, 3.
  • 8
    Y. Gaillard, G. Pépin. Simultaneous solid-phase extraction on C18 cartridges of opiates and cocainics for an improved quantitation in human hair by GC-MS: One year of forensic applications. Forensic Sci. Int. 1997, 86, 49.
  • 9
    E. Han, H. Chung, J.M. Song. Segmental hair analysis for 11-Nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the patterns of cannabis use. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2012, 36, 195.
  • 10
    M.J. Baptista, P.V. Monsanto, E.G. Pinho Marques, A. Bermejo, S. Ávila, A.M. Castanheira, C. Margalho, M. Barroso, D.N. Vieira. Hair analysis for Δ9-THC, Δ9-THC-COOH, CBN and CBD, by GC/MS-EI: Comparison with GC/MS-NCI for Δ9-THC-COOH. Forensic Sci. Int. 2002, 128, 66.
  • 11
    V. Cirimele, H. Sachs, P. Kintz, P. Mangin. Testing human hair for cannabis. III. rapid screening procedure for the simultaneous identification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabinol, and cannabidiol. J. Anal. Toxicol. 1996, 20, 13.
  • 12
    J.Y. Kim, J.C. Cheong, J.I. Lee, M.K. In. Improved gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair using mechanical pulverization and bead-assisted liquid-liquid extraction. Forensic Sci. Int. 2011, 206, e99.
  • 13
    T. Mieczkowski. Assessing the potential of a ‘color effect’ for hair analysis of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: Analysis of a large sample of hair specimens. Life Sci. 2003, 74, 463.
  • 14
    M. Uhl, H. Sachs. Cannabinoids in hair: Strategy to prove marijuana/hashish consumption. Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 143.
  • 15
    D. Wilkins, H. Haughey, E. Cone, M. Huestis, R. Foltz, D. Rollins. Quantitative analysis of THC, 11-OH-THC, and THCCOOH in human hair by negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J. Anal. Toxicol. 1995, 19, 483.
  • 16
    Y. Nakahara, K. Takahashi, R. Kikura. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse. X. Effect of physicochemical properties of drugs on the incorporation rates into hair. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 1995, 18, 1223.
  • 17
    M. Uhl. Determination of drugs in hair using GC/MS/MS. Forensic Sci. Int. 1997, 84, 281.
  • 18
    H. Sachs, U. Dressler. Detection of THCCOOH in hair by MSD-NCI after HPLC clean-up. Forensic Sci. Int. 2000, 107, 239.
  • 19
    T. Mieczkowski. A research note: The outcome of GC/MS/MS confirmation of hair assays on 93 cannabinoid (+) cases. Forensic Sci. Int. 1995, 70, 83.
  • 20
    M.A. Huestis, R.A. Gustafson, E.T. Moolchan, A. Barnes, J.A. Bourland, S.A. Sweeney, E.F. Hayes, P.M. Carpenter, M.L. Smith. Cannabinoid concentrations in hair from documented cannabis users. Forensic Sci. Int. 2007, 169, 129.
  • 21
    M.A. Huestis, J.E. Henningfield, E.J. Cone. Blood cannabinoids. I. Absorption of THC and formation of 11-OH-THC and THCCOOH during and after smoking marijuana. J. Anal. Toxicol. 1992, 16, 276.
  • 22
    EMCDDA. 2011 Annual Report of the State of the Drugs Problem in Europe, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2011.
  • 23
    F.E. Dussy, C. Hamberg, M. Luginbuhl, T. Schwerzmann, T.A. Briellmann. Isolation of Δ9-THCA-A from hemp and analytical aspects concerning the determination of Δ9-THC in cannabis products. Forensic Sci. Int. 2005, 149, 3.
  • 24
    J. Jung, J. Kempf, H. Mahler, W. Weinmann. Detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A in human urine and blood serum by LC-MS/MS. J. Mass Spectrom. 2007, 42, 354.
  • 25
    V. Auwärter, A. Wohlfarth, J. Traber, D. Thieme, W. Weinmann. Hair analysis for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A--new insights into the mechanism of drug incorporation of cannabinoids into hair. Forensic Sci. Int. 2010, 196, 10.
  • 26
    F. Musshoff, H.P. Junker, D.W. Lachenmeier, L. Kroener, B. Madea. Fully automated determination of cannabinoids in hair samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J. Anal. Toxicol. 2002, 26, 554.
  • 27
    T. Nadulski, F. Pragst. Simple and sensitive determination of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol in hair by combined silylation, headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. B 2007, 846, 78.
  • 28
    A. Salomone, E. Gerace, F. D'Urso, D. Di Corcia, M. Vincenti. Simultaneous analysis of several synthetic cannabinoids, THC, CBD and CBN, in hair by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Method validation and application to real samples. J. Mass Spectrom. 2012, 47, 604.
  • 29
    Society of Hair Testing. Recommendations for hair testing in forensic cases. Forensic Sci. Int. 2004, 145, 83.
  • 30
    F. Mußhoff, G. Skopp, F. Pragst, H. Sachs, D. Thieme. Anhang C zur Richtlinie der GTFCh zur Qualitätssicherung bei forensisch-toxikologischen Untersuchungen. Toxichem. Krimtech. 2009, 76, 209.
  • 31
    N. Roth, A. Wohlfarth, M. Müller, V. Auwärter. Regioselective synthesis of isotopically labeled Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A-D3) by reaction of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-D3 with magnesium methyl carbonate. Forensic Sci. Int. 2012, 222, 368.
  • 32
    N. Roth, B. Moosmann, V. Auwärter. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for quantification of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), THC, CBN and CBD in hair. J. Mass Spectrom. 2013, 48, 227.
  • 33
    E.J. Cone, R.E. Johnson. Contact highs and urinary cannabinoid excretion after passive exposure to marijuana smoke. Clin. Pharm. Ther. 1986, 40, 247.
  • 34
    W. Schubert, R. Mattern. Beurteilungskriterien: Urteilsbildung in der Medizinisch-Psychologischen Fahreignungsdiagnostik, Vol. 2, Kirschbaum Verlag, Bonn, 2008.
  • 35
    G. Romano, N. Barbera, G. Spadaro, V. Valenti. Determination of drugs of abuse in hair: Evaluation of external heroin contamination and risk of false positives, Forensic Sci. Int. 2003, 131, 98.