Conflicts of Interest DW and PD have acted as scientific advisers to the UK Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD) and the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drugs Addiction (EMCDDA).
Acute toxicity and withdrawal syndromes related to gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD)†
Article first published online: 6 MAY 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Drug Testing and Analysis
Special Issue: New Psychoactive Substances
Volume 3, Issue 7-8, pages 417–425, July - August 2011
How to Cite
Wood, D. M., Brailsford, A. D. and Dargan, P. I. (2011), Acute toxicity and withdrawal syndromes related to gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD). Drug Test Analysis, 3: 417–425. doi: 10.1002/dta.292
- Issue published online: 20 JUL 2011
- Article first published online: 6 MAY 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 21 MAR 2011
- Manuscript Received: 17 DEC 2010
- recreational drugs;
- drugs of abuse;
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been used as a recreational drug since the 1990s and over the last few years there has been increasing use of its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and to a lesser extent 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD). This review will summarize the literature on the pharmacology of these compounds; the patterns and management of acute toxicity associated with their use; and the clinical patterns of presentation and management of chronic dependency associated with GHB and its analogues. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.