Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Drug Testing and Analysis

Special Issue: Advances in sports drug testing

November - December 2009

Volume 1, Issue 11-12

Pages 473–611

  1. Cover Pictures

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorials
    4. Perspectives
    5. Reviews
    6. Research Articles
    7. Current Awareness
    1. Cover Picture

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.107

  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorials
    4. Perspectives
    5. Reviews
    6. Research Articles
    7. Current Awareness
    1. Editorial (page 473)

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.114

  3. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorials
    4. Perspectives
    5. Reviews
    6. Research Articles
    7. Current Awareness
    1. The fight against doping: back on track with blood (pages 474–478)

      Martial Saugy, Neil Robinson and Christophe Saudan

      Article first published online: 18 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.93

    2. Is anti-doping analysis so far from clinical, legal or forensic targets?: The added value of close relationships between related disciplines (pages 479–484)

      Jordi Segura

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.55

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      In addition to methodological similarities, there are many areas of common interest between anti-doping laboratories and those working in the clinical, legal and forensic fields. Recent examples are presented from the author's experience. Case report 1 concerns the clinical relevance of hCG findings in sport drug testing as potential indicators of the presence of a tumour in athletes. Case report 2 refers to difficulties that accredited laboratories can encounter due to differences between national legal systems and the administrative regulation systems of sport authorities. The example involves a network of blood collection for further autologous transfusion. Case report 3 relates to additional forensic-type investigations needed to interpret a situation where intoxication of a whole delegation was responsible for apparent doping cases.

  4. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorials
    4. Perspectives
    5. Reviews
    6. Research Articles
    7. Current Awareness
    1. Anti-doping testing at the 2008 European football championship (pages 485–493)

      Marc Vouillamoz, Caroline Thom, Richard Grisdale, Martial Saugy, Sylvain Giraud, Neil Robinson, Günter Gmeiner and Thomas Geisendorfer

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.105

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      Big sports events like the 2008 European Football Championship are a challenge for anti-doping activities. This challenges the logistics of sample collection as well as the chemical analyses to be carried out in due time. An overview of the logistics of the anti-doping program and the analytical results of blood profiling and growth hormone testing is presented.

  5. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorials
    4. Perspectives
    5. Reviews
    6. Research Articles
    7. Current Awareness
    1. SARCOSYL-PAGE: a new method for the detection of MIRCERA- and EPO-doping in blood (pages 494–504)

      Christian Reichel, Friedrich Abzieher and Thomas Geisendorfer

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.97

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      Detection of MIRCERA-doping is hampered by the limited excretion of the rather large MIRCERA molecule in urine. Blood (serum, plasma) appears to be the ideal matrix for detecting all forms of ESA-doping, since the apparent molecular masses of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are different from the mass of human serum EPO (shEPO). SARCOSYL-PAGE, a newly developed method based on the theory of SDS-PAGE, allows the direct detection of MIRCERA, recombinant epoetins (e.g. NeoRecormon, Dynepo, NESP), and shEPO in a single experiment in 200 µL of serum and with high (i.e. femtogram) sensitivity.

    2. Temporal indication of cannabis use by means of THC glucuronide determination (pages 505–510)

      Ute Mareck, Nadine Haenelt, Hans Geyer, Sven Guddat, Matthias Kamber, Rudolf Brenneisen, Mario Thevis and Wilhelm Schänzer

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.106

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      An assay for the determination of THC glucuronide in human urine is presented and its implementation as complementary indicator for the detection of cannabis misuse in competition is discussed.

    3. Screening for testosterone abuse in male athletes using the measurement of urinary LH, a revision of the paradigm (pages 511–517)

      Catrin Goebel, Christopher J. Howe, Ken K. Ho, Anne Nelson, Rymantas Kazlauskas and Graham J. Trout

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.71

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      The measurement of LH in urine in conjunction with the routine measurement of T/E ratio can be used to markedly improve the efficient detection of testosterone abuse by male athletes. Suppressed LH values can detect testosterone abuse in subjects with low natural T/E ratios, and normal LH values can be used to help eliminate from suspicion those subjects with naturally elevated T/E ratios.

    4. Analysis of non-ketoic steroids 17α-methylepithiostanol and desoxymethyl- testosterone in dietary supplements (pages 518–525)

      Masato Okano, Mitsuhiko Sato, Ayako Ikekita and Shinji Kageyama

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.72

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      To investigate the contents of two dietary supplements (EPISTANE™ and P-PLEX™), the GC/MS analysis after the TMS derivatization, LC/MS in APPI and NMR spectroscopy were conducted. Although the labeling of EPISTANE™ indicates that it contains 17α-methyl-2α, 3α-epithio-5α-androstane-17β-ol only, 17α-methyl-2β,3β-epithio-5α-androstane-17β-ol and desoxymethyltestosterone were identified in the supplement. The results showed that P-PLEX™ contained desoxymethyltestosterone and its isomer 17α-methyl-5α-androst-3-en-17β-ol.

    5. Ethylglucuronide as a potential marker for alcohol-induced elevation of urinary testosterone/epitestosterone ratios (pages 526–530)

      Joachim Große, Patricia Anielski, Hans Sachs and Detlef Thieme

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.110

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      The suitability of ethylglucuronide (EtG) as marker for alcohol-induced changes of the steroid profile monitored in doping analysis was evaluated. In a controlled ethanol ingestion study the formation of EtG was observed to coincide with elevated urinary testosterone/epitestosterone ratios. Similarly, large amounts of EtG were correlated with abnormal steroid profiles found in routine doping samples.

    6. Steroid metabolism in chimeric mice with humanized liver (pages 531–537)

      Leen Lootens, Peter Van Eenoo, Philip Meuleman, Oscar J. Pozo, Pieter Van Renterghem, Geert Leroux-Roels and Frans T. Delbeke

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.67

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      The uPA+/+-SCID mouse model with humanized liver has proven to be a good and appropriate model to mimic human steroid metabolism for those steroids for which it has been validated (methandienone, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and 19-norandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione). Based on the results of all 3 tested steroids the chimeric mice seem to be a very promising model for the investigation of steroid metabolism.

    7. Detection of mono-hydroxylated metabolites of stanozolol by HPLC-ESI (+) MS/MS in Indian sports persons (pages 538–544)

      S. Ahi, A. Beotra and S. Jain

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.76

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      The abuse of stanozolol is quite widespread in Indian sports persons. The percentage positive of stanozolol in Indian sports persons showed marked increase in the last five years from 31.9% in 2004 to 81.8%. It may be due to the improved detection by more effective LC-MS/MS method.

    8. Application of FAIMS to anabolic androgenic steroids in sport drug testing (pages 545–553)

      Sven Guddat, Mario Thevis, James Kapron, Andreas Thomas and Wilhelm Schänzer

      Article first published online: 9 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.73

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      FAIMS (high-Field Asymmetric waveform Ion Mobility Spectrometry) separates gas phase ions based upon their shapes at atmospheric pressure prior to the MS. The key benefit of this technology is the enhancement of specificity which assists and simplifies the detection of trace level compounds. In this work, an improvement for the identification of the banned substances stanozolol, metandienone and trenbolone in sport drug testing could be achieved. The implication of this finding is that athletes dosing with banned substances many weeks prior to a sporting event may be revealed and thus disqualified from competition.

    9. Combination of liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in different scan modes with human and chimeric mouse urine for the study of steroid metabolism (pages 554–567)

      Oscar J. Pozo, Leen Lootens, Peter Van Eenoo, Koen Deventer, Philip Meuleman, Geert Leroux-Roels, Maria K. Parr, Wilhelm Schänzer and Frans T. Delbeke

      Article first published online: 26 OCT 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.56

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      The application of LC-MS/MS methods based on several scan modes to both human urine and chimeric mouse urine samples as a model for the detection of unknown steroid metabolites has been evaluated. More than 80% of previously detected methandienone metabolites could be detected applying this approach. Additionally, three previously reported metabolites were detected including 6-ene-epimethandienone which was confirmed by the synthesis of the reference compound.

    10. Terbutaline sulfoconjugate: characterization and urinary excretion monitored by LC/ESI-MS/MS (pages 568–575)

      A. K. Orlovius, S. Guddat, M. K. Parr, M. Kohler, M. Gütschow, M. Thevis and W. Schänzer

      Article first published online: 10 DEC 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.84

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      The β-2 agonist terbutaline is excreted in urine beside the parent compound as sulfoconjugate. The sulfoconjugated phase-II metabolite was identified to be the phenolic esterified compound. After characterisation by high resolution/high accuracy Orbitrap mass spectrometry and 1H-NMR, excretion in urine beside the unchanged drug could be determined for 2 to 4 days.

    11. Determination of 13C/12C ratios of urinary epitestosterone and its main metabolites 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α, 17α-diol (pages 576–586)

      Thomas Piper, Phillip Riemann, Georg Opfermann, Ute Mareck, Hans Geyer, Graziela Vajiala, Ulrich Flenker and Wilhelm Schänzer

      Article first published online: 22 SEP 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.53

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Epitestosterone (17α-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one, EpiT) belongs to the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Although it possesses no anabolic effect, it is presumed to be misused by athletes in order to mask administration of testosterone (T) by lowering the urinary T/EpiT ratio. To improve detection, an excretion study with 40 mg of orally administered EpiT was conducted focusing on the metabolites of EpiT: 5α- and 5β-androstane-3α,17 α-diol (5aEpiD and 5bEpiD). A reference population of n = 74 volunteers was investigated to elucidate the urinary concentrations of these steroids.

    12. Development of criteria for the detection of adrenosterone administration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for doping control (pages 587–595)

      Lance Brooker, Maria Kristina Parr, Adam Cawley, Ulrich Flenker, Christopher Howe, Rymantas Kazlauskas, Wilhelm Schänzer and Adrian George

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.108

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      Adrenosterone (androst-4-ene-3,11,17-trione, 11-oxoandrostenedione) is an endogenous steroid hormone that is promoted as a dietary supplement capable of reducing body fat and increasing muscle mass due to its cortisol modulating properties. Its urinary metabolism was investigated in two male subjects by GC-MS and GC-C-IRMS after a single oral administration. The obtained results were compared to a reference population data set (n = 85), allowing criteria for the doping control of adrenosterone to be proposed.

  6. Current Awareness

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Pictures
    3. Editorials
    4. Perspectives
    5. Reviews
    6. Research Articles
    7. Current Awareness

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