Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 7‐8

Special Issue: New Psychoactive Substances

July - August 2011

Volume 3, Issue 7-8

Pages 401–523

Issue edited by: Andrew T. Kicman, Leslie A. King

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
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      A brief history of ‘new psychoactive substances’ (pages 401–403)

      L. A. King and A. T. Kicman

      Version of Record online: 20 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.319

  2. Mini reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Some new psychoactive substances: Precursor chemicals and synthesis-driven end-products (pages 404–416)

      Michael Collins

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.315

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper describes some of the new classes of ‘designer drugs’ being encountered today by forensic scientists and law enforcement agencies in Europe, the United States and Australia.

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Acute toxicity and withdrawal syndromes related to gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) (pages 417–425)

      Dr David M. Wood, Alan D. Brailsford and Paul I. Dargan

      Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.292

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has been used as a recreational drug since the 1990s and over the last few years there has been increasing use of its analogues gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and to a lesser extent 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD). This review article will summarise the literature on the pharmacology of these compounds; the patterns and management of acute toxicity associated with their use; and the clinical patterns of presentation and management of chronic dependency associated with GHB and its analogues.

  4. Transcripts

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. BZP and New Zealand's alternative approach to prohibition (pages 426–427)

      Matt Bowden and Paul Trevorrow

      Version of Record online: 8 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.324

  5. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Benzylpiperazine: the New Zealand legal perspective (pages 428–429)

      T. Bassindale

      Version of Record online: 30 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.314

      In 2005 the New Zealand Government created a new schedule of ‘Restricted Substances’ under the Misuse of Drugs Act (1975). Benzylpiperazine was the first drug to be classified as what became known informally as ‘Class D’. The rationale behind that decision and the subsequent reclassification of benzylpiperazine to Class C, in 2008, is discussed.

  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Current awareness of piperazines: pharmacology and toxicology (pages 430–438)

      Simon Elliott

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.307

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      This review reports the current pharmacological and toxicological information for piperazine derivatives and also includes new ante-mortem and post-mortem blood data.

    2. Cathinone derivatives: A review of their chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology (pages 439–453)

      John P. Kelly

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.313

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This review emphasises the current knowledge of the chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of cathinone derivatives. Cathinone is the prototype naturally occurring substance from which a variety of derivatives have been synthesised, that have demonstrated amphetamine-like effects, with consequent concerns about their abuse potential and safety, most particularly mephedrone. Such concerns have led to cathinone derivatives becoming illegal in a number of countries.

    3. The pharmacology and toxicology of the synthetic cathinone mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) (pages 454–463)

      Paul I. Dargan, Roumen Sedefov, Ana Gallegos and Dr David M. Wood

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.312

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This review summarises the available literature regarding sources, availability, and prevalence of the use of mephedrone. In addition offering a discussion in response to pharmacology, patterns of acute toxicity, reported fatalities associated with its use, and the potential formephedrone dependence.

  7. Correspondence case reports

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. The potential dangers of mephedrone in people with diabetes: a case report (pages 464–465)

      Mo Lee Wong and Professor Richard IG Holt

      Version of Record online: 13 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.316

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Mephedrone is a cathinone derivative that has been used as a ‘legal high’ but was re-classified in the UK as a class B (intermediate category) drug. This report describes an 18-year-old man with type 1 diabetes who developed ketoacidosis following self-reported mephedrone use. Cathinone compounds may directly increase the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis by stimulating the central nervous system but may also indirectly impair an individual's ability to manage their diabetes through changes in cognitive function and behaviour.

  8. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. The emergence and analysis of synthetic cannabinoids (pages 466–478)

      Simon Hudson and John Ramsey

      Version of Record online: 21 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.268

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The so called ‘Spice’ herbal incense products are a recent phenomenon that is getting frequent international press coverage. The synthetic cannabinoids that are the active ingredients in these products are significantly more potent than cannabis. Approaches to the detection of these synthetic cannabinoids are presented together with a comprehensive summary of GCMS and LCMS spectral data generated to date.

  9. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Aminoindanes—the next wave of ‘legal highs’? (pages 479–482)

      P.D. Sainsbury, A.T. Kicman, R.P. Archer, L.A. King and R.A. Braithwaite

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.318

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The aminoindanes are potent serotonin releasing agents that may have the appropriate chemical structure to become one of the new waves of drugs of abuse. A number of analogues of 2-aminoindane are being marketed as ‘legal highs’, all having substitutions around the aromatic ring. The chemistry, pharmacology and toxicological aspects of these analogues are discussed.

    2. In vitro approaches to studying the metabolism of new psychoactive compounds (pages 483–495)

      Frank T. Peters and Markus R. Meyer

      Version of Record online: 14 JUN 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.295

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In recent years, numerous new psychoactive compounds have appeared on the illicit drugs market. Studies on the metabolism of such new drugs (ND) are an important task in analytical toxicology. In this paper, in vitro approaches employing subcellular fractions such as microsomes (MS) or cytosol (CS) or whole cells such as intact hepatocytes (HC) or genetically modified fission yeast cells (FY) for identification of new drug metabolites (MB) or to study the kinetics of their formation are critically reviewed.

  10. Short communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Development of a rapid LC-MS/MS method for direct urinalysis of designer drugs (pages 496–504)

      Charlotte Bell, Claire George, Andrew T. Kicman and Allan Traynor

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.306

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Direct analysis of diluted urine by LC-MS/MS offers an attractive way forward for the development of a rapid routine screen for new psychoactive substances in workplace drug testing.

  11. Mini Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances (pages 505–514)

      Roland P. Archer, Ric Treble and Keith Williams

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.317

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones and a brief examination of other mechanisms for sourcing starting materials.

  12. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Mini reviews
    4. Reviews
    5. Transcripts
    6. Perspectives
    7. Reviews
    8. Correspondence case reports
    9. Research Articles
    10. Reviews
    11. Short communications
    12. Mini Reviews
    13. Reviews
    1. Social, policy, and public health perspectives on new psychoactive substances (pages 515–523)

      H.R. Sumnall, M. Evans-Brown and J. McVeigh

      Version of Record online: 11 JUL 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.310

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      New psychoactive substances pose a particular challenge to those formulating drugs policy and related public health responses. This paper outlines some of the main issues arising from their use, with a particular focus on user perspectives.

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