Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 3 Issue 9

Special Issue: Illicit Drugs

September 2011

Volume 3, Issue 9

Pages 525–641

Issue edited by: Simon D. Brandt

  1. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
  2. Spotlight

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Doors of deception—The diaspora of designer drugs (pages 527–531)

      James Kerwin

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.302

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      The proliferation of designer drugs has been abetted by rapid advances in computational and synthetic organic chemistry. This article briefly reviews the history of cannabinoid analysis, and summarizes advances in the synthesis of mimetics made possible following identification of cannabinoid receptors. The impact of these developments on human health and regulatory efforts are discussed.

  3. Mini Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Detection of drugs of abuse by Raman spectroscopy (pages 532–538)

      Matthew J. West and Michael J. Went

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.217

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      Raman spectroscopy can provide rapid, sensitive, non-destructive analysis of a variety of drugs types. This review considers identification and quantification of drugs of abuse dependent on the type of forensic evidence involved including bulk street drugs as well as samples found in drinks, on fibres/clothing, in fingerprints, on fingernails and bank notes, and in body fluids.

  4. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
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      A forensic case study: the detection of contraband drugs in carrier solutions by Raman spectroscopy (pages 539–543)

      A. D. Burnett, H. G. M. Edwards, M. D. Hargreaves, T. Munshi and K. Page

      Article first published online: 29 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.169

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      Recently, cocaine has been concealed by dissolving it in alcohol and then transporting it in solution through ports and airports. At the present time it is very difficult to detect cocaine in this form in these environments. However, it has been shown that Raman spectroscopy can successfully detect the presence of these drugs without removing specimens from their containers.

    2. Non-invasive detection of cocaine dissolved in wine bottles by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (pages 544–547)

      Giulio Gambarota, Chiara Perazzolo, Antoine Leimgruber, Reto Meuli, Patrice Mangin, Marc Augsburger and Silke Grabherr

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.179

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      Dissolved cocaine in wine can be detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy on a standard clinical scanner, in intact wine bottles.

  5. Mini Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Khat a drug of abuse: roles of free radicals and antioxidants (pages 548–551)

      Samir L. Aleryani, Rowaida A. Aleryani and Ahmed A. Al-Akwa

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.224

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      Many articles have reviewed the health impact of Khat consumption; however the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis associated with short- and long-term consumption of Khat is absent in the literature. As free radicals and antioxidants converge across various mechanisms in normal physiological function and in disease, this review attempts to uncover the role of endogenous free radicals and the mechanism of cellular injury associated with Khat consumption.

  6. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. GHB and synthetic cathinones: clinical effects and potential consequences (pages 552–559)

      Laurent Karila and Michel Reynaud

      Article first published online: 2 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.210

      Designer drugs belong to a group of legally or illegally produced substances that are structurally and pharmacologically very similar to illicit drugs. Most of them can be bought on legal websites and home-delivered for private parties. Recently, legal highs have once again become a burning media issue across the world. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may occur in users. Prevention, Information, Action and Treatment are the main goals that must be addressed for this new potentially addictive problem.

    2. An overview of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, toxic effects, addiction, analytical methods, and interpretation of results (pages 560–568)

      H. Andresen, B. E. Aydin, A. Mueller and S. Iwersen-Bergmann

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.254

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      In this review the history of GHB, its pharmacokinetics as well as its pharmacodynamics is described. Furthermore the misuse as club drug and as date rape drug, intoxications and addiction to GHB are discussed. Analytical methods are displayed in detail, also the problem of determining cut offs.

  7. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Analysis of NRG ‘legal highs’ in the UK: identification and formation of novel cathinones (pages 569–575)

      Dr Simon D. Brandt, Sally Freeman, Harry R. Sumnall, Fiona Measham and Jon Cole

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.204

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      A large number of cathinone derivatives have shown a wide range of bioactive properties, attracting great interest from communities associated with pharmaceutical research. Some of these derivatives have gained popularity as so-called recreational ‘legal highs’ due to their availability on the Internet and high street shops. A previous study described the qualitative analysis of 24 ‘legal high’ Energy-1 (NRG-1) and NRG-2 products obtained from 18 websites following the ban on mephedrone and derivatives in April 2010. The majority of these products contained a mixture of cathinones just carrying a new label. Here, three additional cathinone products have been detected; two from an NRG-1 sample and one from an NRG-3 sample.

    2. An analysis of legal highs—do they contain what it says on the tin? (pages 576–581)

      Mark Baron, Mathieu Elie and Leonie Elie

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.274

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      Second generation legal high products purchased from the internet were analysed using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. One product was found to contain the active ingredient stated whereas the others did not contain the stated active ingredients but contained the controlled substances benzylpiperazine and 3-trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine.

  8. Special Feature: Mini-reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Subjective effects in humans following administration of party pill drugs BZP and TFMPP alone and in combination (pages 582–585)

      Joanne C. Lin, Reem K. Jan, Rob R. Kydd and Bruce R. Russell

      Article first published online: 28 APR 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.285

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      Use of Party Pill drugs has been escalating worldwide, however little research has been conducted on the subjective effects of these piperazines in humans. This paper outlines the subjective effects of Party Pill drugs BZP and TFMPP taken alone, and in combination compared to placebo.

  9. Mini Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Potential impact of drug effects, availability, pharmacokinetics, and screening on estimates of drugs implicated in cases of assault (pages 586–593)

      Lawrence P. Carter

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.203

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      It is important to know which drugs are used to facilitate assault in order to deter such crime. Data from poison control centers, hospitals, and law enforcement in the US were used to evaluate different classes of drugs. Benzodiazepine−site ligands, “club drugs,“ muscle relaxants, and antihistamines were identified as drugs that might be used for assault and remain undetected. A better understanding of what is being missed will help prioritize the development and availability of new assays for routine testing.

  10. Short Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Enzyme-assisted synthesis of the glucuronide conjugate of psilocin, an hallucinogenic component of magic mushrooms (pages 594–596)

      Takuji Shoda, Kiyoshi Fukuhara, Yukihiro Goda and Haruhiro Okuda

      Article first published online: 2 FEB 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.244

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      An enzyme-assisted synthesis of psilocin glucuronide (PCG), a metabolite excreted in the urine of Magic Mushroom (MM) users, is described. The milligram amounts of PCG produced by this method will allow the direct determination and quantification of PCG in the urine of MM users.

  11. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Microwave-accelerated preparation and analytical characterization of 5-ethoxy-N,N-dialkyl-[α,α,β,β-H4]- and [α,α,β,β-D4]-tryptamines (pages 597–608)

      Ruchanok Tearavarich, Viwat Hahnvajanawong, Nicola Dempster, Paul F. Daley, Nicholas V. Cozzi and Simon D. Brandt

      Article first published online: 29 DEC 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.223

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      Many tryptamine derivatives show psychoactive properties in humans. A rapid microwave-accelerated preparation of twelve 5-ethoxy-N,N-dialkyl-[α,α,β,β-H4]-tryptamines and twelve 5-ethoxy-N,N-dialkyl-[α,α,β,β-D4]-tryptamines is described. Analytical characterization of these novel compounds was carried out by 1D/2D NMR, GC-EI-MS and GC-CI-MS/MS.

    2. Screening for the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 and its major metabolites in human doping controls (pages 609–620)

      Ines Möller, Annette Wintermeyer, Katja Bender, Martin Jübner, Andreas Thomas, Oliver Krug, Wilhelm Schänzer and Mario Thevis

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2010 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.158

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      Phase-I- & -II metabolites of the synthetic cannabinoid JWH-108 representing a major active ingredient of ‘spice’ products were characterized in a human post-administration sample and the most abundant phase-I- metabolite was implemented into routine doping controls as target compound.

  12. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. The Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS) in the Netherlands: Implementation, results, and international comparison (pages 621–634)

      Tibor M. Brunt and Raymond J.M. Niesink

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.323

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      This review describes the background, methodology and some of the results of nearly two decades of illicit drug testing through the Dutch Drug Information and Monitoring System (DIMS). Also other international illicit drug testing systems are briefly discussed in terms of comparability. Finally, the review underlines the importance of illicit drug monitoring for preventive action directed at drug users and policy making in general.

  13. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorials
    3. Spotlight
    4. Mini Reviews
    5. Research Articles
    6. Mini Reviews
    7. Reviews
    8. Research Articles
    9. Special Feature: Mini-reviews
    10. Mini Reviews
    11. Short Communications
    12. Research Articles
    13. Reviews
    14. Perspectives
    1. Effectiveness of and challenges faced by surveillance systems (pages 635–641)

      Matthew Dunn, Raimondo Bruno, Lucinda Burns and Amanda Roxburgh

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2011 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.333

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