Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 5 Issue 8

August 2013

Volume 5, Issue 8

Pages 607–721

  1. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research articles
    1. Analytical methods for the detection of undeclared synthetic drugs in traditional herbal medicines as adulterants (pages 607–613)

      Jamshed Haneef, Mohammad Shaharyar, Asif Husain, Mohd Rashid, Ravinesh Mishra, Nadeem A. Siddique and Manoj Pal

      Version of Record online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1482

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      Traditional herbal medicines (THMs) are gaining popularity worldwide as an alternative approach to prescription drugs for many reasons; one general perception is that they are safe. Recently there have been number of reported studies that reveal adulteration of THMs with undeclared synthetic drugs, which may potentially cause serious toxic adverse effects. The main focus is to highlight newer analytical tools used to detect adulteration. This review gives an overview of health-related risks after consuming such spurious products and notes the challenges for future perspectives to control such type of malpractice.

  2. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Review
    3. Research articles
    1. Analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG): Application of routine immunological methods for initial testing and confirmation analysis in doping control (pages 614–618)

      Tiia Kuuranne, Liisa Ahola, Christel Pussinen and Antti Leinonen

      Version of Record online: 10 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1449

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      Siemens Immulite 2000 XPi hCG-assay for initial testing and PerkinElmer DELFIA Xpress hCG-assay for confirmatory testing showed adequate sensitivity and were proven fit-for-purpose in routine doping control. Population-based distribution of the assays was in good agreement with results of earlier studies and supported well the current threshold of 5 IU/L.

    2. Reference ranges for the urinary steroid profile in a Latin-American population (pages 619–626)

      D. Martínez-Brito, M. T. Correa Vidal, X. de la Torre, V. García-Mir, O. Ledea Lozano and M. Granda Fraga

      Version of Record online: 21 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1448

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      Steroids reference values from a Latin-American population to control doping are presented. A comparison between sexes referred to urinary steroids is presented. A link between Caucasian and Latin-Americans is made referred to WADA limits.

    3. Identification of recombinant human relaxin-2 in equine plasma by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (pages 627–633)

      Wai Him Kwok, Emmie N. M. Ho, Gary N. W. Leung, April S. Y. Wong, Samuel K. Yue and Terence S. M. Wan

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1427

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      Relaxin is a peptide hormone known for reproduction and pregnancy, but it has also been demonstrated to play a vital role in other therapies. Its ability to dilate blood vessels surrounding the smooth muscles via induction of nitric oxide result in the increase of blood and oxygen supplies to the muscles. As such, it is banned in horseracing, equestrian competitions, and human sports. This paper describes the first liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method for the identification of recombinant human relaxin-2 in equine plasma.

    4. Analytical characterization of three hallucinogenic N-(2-methoxy)benzyl derivatives of the 2C-series of phenethylamine drugs (pages 634–645)

      Dariusz Zuba and Karolina Sekuła

      Version of Record online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1397

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      This publication reports the MS, IR and NMR spectroscopic data of three new hallucinogenic substances identified in blotter papers seized from the drug market, namely 25D-NBOMe [2-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine], 25E-NBOMe [2-(4-ethyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine] and 25G-NBOMe [2-(2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-dimethyl-phenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine]. These substances are highly potent agonists of serotonin receptors (5-HT2A), with active doses at microgram levels.

    5. A redox proteomic investigation of oxidative stress caused by benzoylecgonine in the freshwater bivalve Dreissena polymorpha (pages 646–656)

      Alessandra Pedriali, Consuelo Riva, Marco Parolini, Simone Cristoni, David Sheehan and Andrea Binelli

      Version of Record online: 19 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1409

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      Benzoylecgonine (BE), the main metabolite of cocaine, is a new environmental contaminant and one of the most abundant drugs found in freshwaters. We studied BE's effects on Dreissena polymorpha by the application of redox proteomics. We detected a clear increase of protein carbonylation after exposure to BE suggesting the presence of oxidative stress. BE leads to modification of some proteins involved in glucose metabolism and some which are cytoskeletal components of the cell.

    6. Analysis of 30 synthetic cannabinoids in oral fluid using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (pages 657–669)

      Stefan Kneisel, Volker Auwärter and Jürgen Kempf

      Version of Record online: 18 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1429

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      In recent years, the analysis of synthetic cannabinoids in human specimens has gained enormous importance in the broad field of drug testing. Although the analysis of blood samples is the current method of choice, the need for alternative matrices arises whenever blood sampling is not possible. In this paper, we present a fully validated LC/ESI-MS/MS method for the analysis 30 synthetic cannabinoids in oral fluid samples collected with the Dräger DCD 5000 collection device.

    7. Identification and differentiation of methcathinone analogs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (pages 670–677)

      Kenji Tsujikawa, Toshiyasu Mikuma, Kenji Kuwayama, Hajime Miyaguchi, Tatsuyuki Kanamori, Yuko T. Iwata and Hiroyuki Inoue

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1437

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      We performed GC-MS analysis, including sample preparation, of nine MC analogs. This study identified several key points required for the accurate analysis such as the prevention of thermal degradation and the loss of analytes during evaporation. In addition, this study has demonstrated analytical conditions and can successfully discriminate between three FMC positional isomers.

    8. Monitoring of the interconversion of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) to gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) by Raman spectroscopy (pages 678–682)

      Tasnim Munshi, Victoria. L. Brewster, Howell G. M. Edwards, Michael D. Hargreaves, Shelina. K. Jilani and Ian J Scowen

      Version of Record online: 6 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1438

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      Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a drug-of-abuse that has recently become associated with drug-facilitated sexual assault, known as date rape. For this reason the drug is commonly found ‘spiked’ into alcoholic beverages. When GHB is in solution, it may undergo conversion into the corresponding lactone, Gamma-butyrolactone (GBL); therefore both GHB and GBL have been studied in the present work to monitor the interconversion of GHB and GBL in solution with different pH conditions and temperature.

    9. UR-144 in products sold via the Internet: Identification of related compounds and characterization of pyrolysis products (pages 683–692)

      Pierce Kavanagh, Andrej Grigoryev, Sergey Savchuk, Irina Mikhura and Andrew Formanovsky

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1456

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      The synthetic cannabinoid, UR-144, was identified in commercial 'legal high' products. A related compound was also detected and identified as product of electrophilic addition of water to cyclopropane moiety. Separate pyrolysis of this hydrated products and UR-144 resulted in the formation of hexenyl compound.

    10. Determination of anti-convulsant and life-preserving capacities of three types of auto-injector therapies against soman intoxication in rats (pages 693–701)

      Trond Myhrer, Siri Enger and Pål Aas

      Version of Record online: 13 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1414

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      Pyridostigmine pretreatment before soman intoxication followed by medical treatment with HI-6 DMS, atropine and avizafone provided a superior treatment regimen in rats compared to pyridostigmine pretreatment, followed by obidoxime, atropine and diazepam post intoxication. HI-6 DMS, physostigmine and scopolamine has superior antidotal efficacy post exposure, but immediate medical treatment is necessary, and therefore not practical for use in a field or emergency situation with exposure to the nerve agent soman.

    11. UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS method for the measurement of dopamine in rodent striatal tissue: A comparative effects of intranasal administration of ropinirole solution over nanoemulsion (pages 702–709)

      Gulam Mustafa, Niyaz Ahmad, Sanjula Baboota, Javed Ali and Alka Ahuja

      Version of Record online: 16 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1426

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      A robust analytical method for dopamine was successfully developed and validated. The detection limit in pictogram proves the potential of this method, which might be an effective tool for estimating the level of dopamine in human being.

    12. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (pages 710–715)

      Omnia A. Ismaiel, Rand G. Jenkins and H. Thomas Karnes

      Version of Record online: 10 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1421

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      Endogenous matrix components that may be extracted from DBS samples and contribute to matrix effects in DBS-LC-MS/MS analysis have not been investigated before. The aim of this study is to investigate various organic solvents for their abilities to extract glycerophosphocholines (e.g. phosphatidycholine), cholesterols and triacylglycerols as the main endogenous matrix components that may result in matrix effects in DBS samples, as a general guide.

    13. Evaluation of pre-analysis loss of dependent drugs in wastewater: stability and binding assessments (pages 716–721)

      Chang Chen, Chris Kostakis, Rodney J. Irvine, Peter D. Felgate and Jason M. White

      Version of Record online: 9 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1428

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      The stability of 11 dependent drugs and metabolites in wastewater under different storage conditions were evaluated, with storing samples at 4 °C found to be the most cost-effective preservative way for most drugs. Labile substances can be stabilized by pH adjustment and preservative addition. No significant analyte loss was observed in the filtration process or in the reconstituted extract.