Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 1-2

Special Issue: Cannabinoids part II: The current situation with cannabinoids

January-February 2014

Volume 6, Issue 1-2

Pages i–i, 1–184

Issue edited by: Andrew T. Kicman, Leslie A. King

  1. Cover picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Cover Picture (page i)

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1602

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  2. Editorial and perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. The current situation with cannabinoids (pages 1–6)

      Andrew T. Kicman and Leslie A. King

      Article first published online: 14 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1597

  3. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Analytical approaches for the determination of phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids in human matrices (pages 7–16)

      Natalia Battista, Manuel Sergi, Camilla Montesano, Sabino Napoletano, Dario Compagnone and Mauro Maccarrone

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1574

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      1. Different methodological approaches have been developed in order to evaluate the content of exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids in various human matrices.
      2. A summary of the main analytical methods used for the identification of these molecules is here described.
      3. In this review, we reported the content of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and of the endogenous substance anandamide (AEA) in the main biological human matrices.
  4. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Quantification of anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels to examine potential influences of tetrahydrocannabinol application on the endocannabinoid system in humans (pages 17–23)

      Ulrike Thieme, Gustav Schelling, Daniela Hauer, Robert Greif, Torsten Dame, Ruediger Paul Laubender, Werner Bernhard, Detlef Thieme, Patrizia Campolongo and Lorenz Theiler

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1561

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      The intravenous administration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to volunteers resulted in s biphasic response of plasma endocannabinoids with an initial increase followed by a significant decline between 6 and 24 h after injection and a gradual return to baseline levels over the following 24 h. Although the underlying machanism is not clear, this observation indicates that THC have may prolonged effects on endogenous cannabinoid signalling with possible impliacations for cannabis dependency or the devepolment of mental disorders after chronic use.

  5. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines (pages 24–30)

      P. J. Robson

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1529

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      Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), an important modulator of diverse physiological systems, have helped to re-ignite interest in cannabis-based medicines. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that stimulate or inhibit ECS are considered. Clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in a range of intractable neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic diseases are then reviewed.

  6. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
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    8. Reviews
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    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. A review of the cultivation and processing of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) for production of prescription medicines in the UK (pages 31–38)

      David J. Potter

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1531

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      Sativex® is the first cannabis-derived prescription medicine recognized in the UK to have medicinal properties. Producing this from raw cannabis is especially challenging as the plant material is extremely inhomogeneous, and the active ingredients are affected by a range of factors. These difficulties of producing the feedstock are explained and the methods used by GW Pharmaceuticals to overcome these problems are described.

  7. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. The adverse health effects of chronic cannabis use (pages 39–45)

      Wayne Hall and Louisa Degenhardt

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1506

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      Epidemiological research over the past decade suggests that regular cannabis use can adversely affect users who initiate use in adolescence and continue to use more than weekly into adulthood. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

  8. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
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    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Variability of cannabis potency in the Venice area (Italy): A survey over the period 2010–2012 (pages 46–51)

      Luca Zamengo, Giampietro Frison, Chiara Bettin and Rocco Sciarrone

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1515

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      THC levels of about 4000 samples of cannabis products analyzed over the period 2010-2012 were investigated to report statistical data about cannabis potency in the north-east of Italy, in a geographical area centred in Venice and extending for more than 10 000 km2 with a population of more than two million.

  9. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Cannabinoids, eating behaviour, and energy homeostasis (pages 52–58)

      Silvana Y. Romero-Zerbo and Francisco J. Bermúdez-Silva

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1594

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      The endogenous cannabinoid system is an intercellular signaling pathway with an outstanding role in energy balance and, as such, a putative pharmacological target for therapeutic interventions in obesity and related co-morbidities. This molecular system is activated by compounds from Cannabis sativa herb. In this perspective article an overview of the current state-of-the-art in development of cannabinoid-based approaches for treating obesity is presented and discussed, in the context of the ancient and well-known medical properties of cannabis.

  10. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
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    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Identification and quantification of synthetic cannabinoids in ‘spice-like’ herbal mixtures: A snapshot of the German situation in the autumn of 2012 (pages 59–71)

      Nico Langer, Rainer Lindigkeit, Hans-Martin Schiebel, Ludger Ernst and Till Beuerle

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1499

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      Herbal smoking blends containing synthetic cannabinoids were analyzed. Altogether, nine compounds could be identified, namely AM-2201. AM-2201-pMe (MAM-2201), AM-1220, AM-1220-azepane, UR-144, XLR-11, JWH-122-pentenyl, AM-2232 and STS-135. Newly appearing compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. In addition, the compounds were investigated by EI-MS and ESI-MS/MS methods. A GC-MS method was developed to quantify these compounds in smoking blends.

    2. Analysis of new classes of recreational drugs in sewage: Synthetic cannabinoids and amphetamine-like substances (pages 72–79)

      Malcolm J. Reid, Lisa Derry and Kevin V. Thomas

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1461

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      New classes of recreational drugs include a synthetic cannabinoid detected in sewage for the first time. Analysis of the metabolites of synthetic cannabinoids and amphetamine-like drugs in sewage can reveal their use in discrete populations. The study demonstrates that sewage biomarker analysis can be applied to evaluate not only the use the traditional illicit drugs (cocaine, cannabis and amphetamines), but also the use of new synthetic drugs.

  11. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Reviews
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Perspectives
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Legal controls on cannabimimetics: An international dilemma? (pages 80–87)

      L. A. King

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1510

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      Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists present problems for legislatures. The number of new compounds makes specific listing impractical and overwhelms attempts to create risk assessments on a substance-by-substance basis. Generic control struggles to cope with the structural diversity. In the absence of pharmacological and toxicological data, the harmful properties of cannabinoids are difficult to establish. Placement of cannabinoids as Schedule 1 substances in some legislation inhibits research into their clinical potential.

  12. Reviews

    1. Top of page
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    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
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    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
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    13. Reviews
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    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Current knowledge on cannabinoids in oral fluid (pages 88–111)

      Dayong Lee and Marilyn A. Huestis

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1514

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      Oral fluid is a promising biological matrix for clinical and forensic drug testing which offers non-invasive and directly observable sample collection and identification of recent drug intake. This review evaluates field applications and controlled drug administration studies on oral fluid cannabinoids published over the past decade. Other considerations for appropriate oral fluid cannabinoid testing are discussed, including onsite screening technologies, confirmatory analytical methods, drug stability, and effects of sample collection procedure, adulterants, and passive environmental exposure.

  13. Research articles

    1. Top of page
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    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
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    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
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    13. Reviews
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    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Proof of cannabis administration by sensitive detection of 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid in hair using selective methylation and application of liquid chromatography- tandem and multistage mass spectrometry (pages 112–118)

      Detlef Thieme, Hans Sachs and Michael Uhl

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1565

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      Selective methylation followed by LC- tandem or multistage MS detection represents a sensitive and specific method for quantitation of THC carboxylic acid in hair.

    2. Hair analysis for THCA-A, THC and CBN after passive in vivo exposure to marijuana smoke (pages 119–125)

      Bjoern Moosmann, Nadine Roth and Volker Auwärter

      Article first published online: 15 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1474

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      The study was carried out to investigate to what extent exposure to sidestream marijuana smoke can lead to positive hair results for cannabinoids. Three participants were exposed to sidestream marijuana smoke and the concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A and cannabinol were analyzed in hair using an LC-MS/MS method. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol concentrations similar to the ones found in hair of daily consumers were detected.

    3. Hair analysis as a tool to evaluate the prevalence of synthetic cannabinoids in different populations of drug consumers (pages 126–134)

      A. Salomone, C. Luciano, D. Di Corcia, E. Gerace and M. Vincenti

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1556

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      Among the new psychoactive products, cannabimimetics are likely to be the most abused worldwide. In this study, 344 real hair samples from drug abusers were screened for 23 synthetic cannabinoids. Overall, 15 samples were found positive for at least one compound. Coherent with previously published data, the results show that young males, former or still active Cannabis consumers, represent the population most often involved in cannabimimetics consumption.

  14. Correspondence letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
    5. Research articles
    6. Reviews
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    10. Perspectives
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    15. Correspondence letters
    16. Research articles
    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
  15. Research articles

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    3. Editorial and perspective
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    15. Correspondence letters
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    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Comparison between self-report of cannabis use and toxicological detection of THC/THCCOOH in blood and THC in oral fluid in drivers in a roadside survey (pages 137–142)

      Trudy Van der Linden, Peter Silverans and Alain G. Verstraete

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1517

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      Self-reporting could be an indicative measurement for driving under the influence of cannabis, but analysis of biological samples is still necessary.

  16. Reviews

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    3. Editorial and perspective
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    15. Correspondence letters
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    17. Reviews
    18. Research articles
    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Cannabis use: a perspective in relation to the proposed UK drug-driving legislation (pages 143–154)

      Kim Wolff and Atholl Johnston

      Article first published online: 11 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1588

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      Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug amongst drivers in Europe and there is a significant negative dose-response in relation to driving performance. Raised concentrations of THC (the main psychoactive ingredient of the drug) are significantly associated with increased traffic crash and death risk. There is clearly a case for setting levels of THC for drug-driving legislation. When cannabis and alcohol are detected together the legal thresholds permitted in blood for both should be reduced.

  17. Research articles

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    3. Editorial and perspective
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    15. Correspondence letters
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    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. THCCOOH concentrations in whole blood: Are they useful in discriminating occasional from heavy smokers? (pages 155–163)

      Marie Fabritius, Bernard Favrat, Haithem Chtioui, Giovanni Battistella, Jean-Marie Annoni, Monique Appenzeller, Kim Dao, Eleonora Fornari, Estelle Lauer, Jean-Frédéric Mall, Philippe Maeder, Patrice Mangin, Christian Staub and Christian Giroud

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1581

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      THCCOOH concentrations in whole blood collected from documented cannabis users in a controlled administration study are presented. Significantly differences are found between occasional and heavy smokers. Thresholds are suggested to discriminate these two groups of consumers.

  18. Annual banned-substance review

    1. Top of page
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    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Reviews
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    10. Perspectives
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    15. Correspondence letters
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    19. Annual banned-substance review
    1. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing (pages 164–184)

      Mario Thevis, Tiia Kuuranne, Hans Geyer and Wilhelm Schänzer

      Article first published online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1591

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      Detection assays for drugs and methods of sports doping published between 2012 and 2013 are critically reviewed and evaluated in context with the Prohibited List 2013 as established by the World Anti-Doping Agency.

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