Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 3

March 2014

Volume 6, Issue 3

Pages i–i, 185–307

  1. Cover picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Review
    4. Perspective
    5. Research articles
    6. Correspondence letters
    1. Cover Picture (page i)

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1544

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  2. Review

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Review
    4. Perspective
    5. Research articles
    6. Correspondence letters
    1. Intolerability of cobalt salt as erythropoietic agent (pages 185–189)

      Bastian Ebert and Wolfgang Jelkmann

      Article first published online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1528

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      There is rumor that cobalt ions (Co2+) could be misused in sports, as Co2+ stabilises the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that increase the expression of erythropoietin (EPO). Co2+ is orally active, easy to obtain and inexpensive. However, this article provides strong evidence that the intake of Co2+ can cause severe damage in various tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, heart and sensory organs. These insights should keep athletes off taking Co2+ as a doping means.

  3. Perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Review
    4. Perspective
    5. Research articles
    6. Correspondence letters
    1. Altitude exposure in sports: the Athlete Biological Passport standpoint (pages 190–193)

      Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Helios Pareja-Galeano, Thomas Brioche, Vladimir Martinez-Bello and Giuseppe Lippi

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1539

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      Recent evidences show that altitude exposure may only increase Hbmass, and possibly VO2max, in athletes with an initial low Hbmass value, and that the potential response seems to be reduced in athletes with an already high Hbmass or red blood cell volume RCV). Altitude is the most commonly modified variable over time in an athlete's profile and must always be correctly considered in the calculation, but also by experts who interpret the ABP data. It is crucial to establish an initial or basal Hbmass and Hb concentration before altitude exposure since the potential response is severely reduced in athletes with an already high Hbmass, Hb concentration, or RCV.

  4. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Review
    4. Perspective
    5. Research articles
    6. Correspondence letters
    1. The poppy seed defense: a novel solution (pages 194–201)

      P. Chen, R. A. Braithwaite, C. George, P. J. Hylands, M. C. Parkin, N. W. Smith and A. T. Kicman

      Article first published online: 12 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1590

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      The high frequency for the presence of the marker ATM4 glucuronide in urine, in the absence of 6-MAM, may offer an important advance in forensic toxicology, allowing the development of a new and more definitive test for heroin abuse and thus a potential solution to the so-called ‘poppy seed defense’.

    2. Glycerol administration before endurance exercise: metabolism, urinary glycerol excretion and effects on doping-relevant blood parameters (pages 202–209)

      Karsten Koehler, Hans Braun, Markus de Marees, Hans Geyer, Mario Thevis, Joachim Mester and Wilhelm Schaenzer

      Article first published online: 28 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1446

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      Glycerol was administered before an endurance exercise and plasma and urinary glycerol concentrations were assessed along with blood parameters. Plasma glycerol was highly increased after glycerol administration but was also elevated in the control group post-exercise. Urinary glycerol concentrations were significantly higher than after placebo administration until 13.6 ± 0.9 h. Glycerol-induced changes in plasma volume, haemoglobin, and haematocrit were small and clinically irrelevant.

    3. A proteomic evaluation of the effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and gemfibrozil on marine mussels (Mytilus spp.): evidence for chronic sublethal effects on stress-response proteins (pages 210–219)

      Wiebke Schmidt, Louis-Charles Rainville, Gillian McEneff, David Sheehan and Brian Quinn

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1463

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      1. This study aimed to evaluate the potential sublethal effects of two human pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and gemfibrozil), commonly found in the aquatic environment, on the protein profiles of marine mussels (Mytilus spp.).
      2. Twelve spots were significantly increased or decreased by gemfibrozil and/or diclofenac, seven of which were successfully identified by LC-MS/MS analysis.
      3. These proteins were involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, protein folding and immune responses.
    4. Urine naloxone concentration at different phases of buprenorphine maintenance treatment (pages 220–225)

      Pertti Heikman, Margareeta Häkkinen, Merja Gergov and Ilkka Ojanperä

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1464

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      Naloxone can be detected and used as an indicator of compliance in urine samples from opioid-dependent patients on maintenance treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone coformulation (BNX). We suggest that the urine naloxone residual concentration combined with the high naloxone/buprenorphine ratio can help to differentiate therapeutic sublingual use of BNX from its parenteral abuse.

    5. UHPLC-MS/MS and UHPLC-HRMS identification of zolpidem and zopiclone main urinary metabolites and method development for their toxicological determination (pages 226–233)

      Sabina Strano Rossi, Luca Anzillotti, Erika Castrignanò, Giampietro Frison, Flavio Zancanaro and Marcello Chiarotti

      Article first published online: 19 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1470

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      This paper describes the identification by UHPLC -MS/MS and -HRMS of main urinary metabolites of zolpidem and zopiclone. These compounds, often used in Drug Facilitated Sexual Assaluts (DFSA), are in fact excreted mainly as metabolites. A method was set up for their routinary determination by LC/MS/MS, that can be applied in forensic toxicology cases.

    6. Circulating microRNA as a biomarker of human growth hormone administration to patients (pages 234–238)

      Brian N. Kelly, Doris M. Haverstick, Jae K. Lee, Michael O. Thorner, Mary Lee Vance, Wenjun Xin and David E. Bruns

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1469

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      Plasma-derived microRNA can be used to differentiate between individuals receiving therapeutic replacement doses of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and all others, including individuals with acromegaly. Four microRNAs, expressed differently in individuals receiving therapeutic rhGH, were identified via microarray analysis and confirmed on a larger sample set using real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Future studies on individuals receiving larger doses of rhGH, including a washout period during which the window of detection can be determined, should be performed.

    7. Characterization of nucleobases and nucleosides in the fruit of Alpinia oxyphylla collected from different cultivation regions (pages 239–245)

      Wenjing Song, Yonghui Li, Jianguo Wang, Zeyou Li and Junqing Zhang

      Article first published online: 14 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1462

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      Ten nucleobases and nucleosides were measured simultaneously by HPLC-PDA to explore their profiles in Alpinia oxyphylla obtained from different cultivation regions. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to classify tested samples according to the contents of nucleobases and nucleosides.

    8. Development of high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method for screening mebendazole, clorsulon, diaveridine, and tolfenamic acid in animal-based food samples (pages 246–256)

      Yun Pyo Kang, Jin Yu, Yoonyoung Huh, Jae Ho Oh, Chan Hyeok Kwon, Seul Ji Lee, Ji Won Ee, Geun Tae Kim, Jin Gyun Lee, Jeongmi Lee, Jeong Hill Park, You-Sun Kim and Sung Won Kwon

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1467

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      This paper focused on the method development for screening of residues of the four veterinary drugs, mebendazole, clorsulon, diaveridine, and tolfenamic acid in various food samples based on the maximum residue limit. With conditioning of liquid-liquid extraction and HPLC-UV analysis, the determinative methodology that consisted of common sample preparation step and instrumental analysis step was developed. Finally, the method was validated in accordance with the guidelines for Single-laboratory Validation of Analytical Methods for Trace-level Concentration of Organic Chemicals.

    9. Quantification of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin in rodent brain by UHPLC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS after intra-nasal administration of curcuminoids loaded PNIPAM nanoparticles (pages 257–267)

      Niyaz Ahmad, Musarrat Husain Warsi, Zeenat Iqbal, Mohd Samim and Farhan Jalees Ahmad

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1472

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      A robust and highly sensitive (picogram level) analytical method for quantification of Curcumin (cur), Dementhoxy curcumin (DMC), Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) in Wistar rat brain homogenate by UHPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS was successfully developed and validated.

    10. Detection of myo-inositol tris pyrophosphate (ITPP) in equine following an administration of ITPP (pages 268–276)

      Geoffrey Lam, Sarah Zhao, Jasmeet Sandhu, Rong Yi, Devan Loganathan and Barbara Morrissey

      Article first published online: 4 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1473

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      The detection of ITPP in equine plasma and urine after an intravenous administration of a small dose of ITPP (200 mg IV) to a Standardbred mare is described. The samples were analyzed using Hydrophilic Interaction High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry. ITPP was detected up to 6 hours in post administration plasma and up to 24 hours in post administration urine. For accurate quantitation hexadeuterated ITPP (ITPP-d6) was used as an internal standard.

    11. Detection and identification of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide in nitrite adulterated urine specimens containing morphine and its glucuronides (pages 277–287)

      Susan Luong and Shanlin Fu

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1476

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      Exposure of urine containing morphine, codeine, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide to nitrite resulted in the formation of 2-nitro-morphine and 2-nitro-morphine-6-glucuronide. These oxidation products can potentially be used for the indirect monitoring of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in urine specimens adulterated with nitrite.

    12. UPLC-PDA-TOF/MS coupled with multivariate statistical analysis to rapidly analyze and evaluate Ginkgo biloba leaves from different origin (pages 288–294)

      Xin Yao, Guisheng Zhou, Yuping Tang, Sheng Guo, Yefei Qian, Chun Jin, Yong Qin, Dawei Qian and Jin-ao Duan

      Article first published online: 10 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1477

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      A UPLC-PDA-TOF/MS was proposed and validated for rapidly analyzing and evaluating Ginkgo biloba leaves from different origin by using multivariate statistical analysis. By comparing the mass/UV spectra and retention times with those of reference compounds and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formulae with those of the known compounds published in the literature.

  5. Correspondence letters

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Review
    4. Perspective
    5. Research articles
    6. Correspondence letters
    1. Problems encountered in managing of hCG findings in Spanish football (pages 301–302)

      José M. Moran, José A. Casajús and Helena Herrero

      Article first published online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1566

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