Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue 7-8

Special Issue: New psychoactive substances part II

July-August 2014

Volume 6, Issue 7-8

Pages i–i, 587–891

Issue edited by: Simon D. Brandt

  1. Cover picture

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Cover Picture (page i)

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1693

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
  2. Editorial and perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. You have free access to this content
      The new drug phenomenon (pages 587–597)

      Simon D. Brandt, Leslie A. King and Michael Evans-Brown

      Article first published online: 3 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1686

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract
  3. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)indole positional isomers in forensic samples (pages 598–606)

      Kenneth R. Scott, John D. Power, Seán D. McDermott, John E. O'Brien, Brian N. Talbot, Michael G. Barry and Pierce V. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1508

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The analyses of three forensic drug samples tentatively revealed the presence of an (2-aminopropyl)indole (API) isomer. The six positional isomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-(2-aminopropyl)indoles) were synthesized and analyses by a combination of GC-MS and LC-MS showed that these could be readily discriminated thus confirming the presence of 3- and 5- APIs in the forensic samples.

  4. Short communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. 5-(2-Aminopropyl)indole (5-IT): a psychoactive substance used for recreational purposes is an inhibitor of human monoamine oxidase (MAO) (pages 607–613)

      Tomás Herraiz and Simon D. Brandt

      Article first published online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1530

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present study shows that 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT) is a relatively potent, selective, competitive and reversible inhibitor of human MAO-A. Results also indicate that 5-IT is less potent than clorgyline and harmaline but more potent than toloxatone and moclobemide under the in vitro conditions studied. The results suggests that 5-IT by itself or in combination with other substances may be able to potentiate serotonergic/monoaminergic effects and further studies are needed to clarify its relevance to the adverse effects reported for 5-IT.

  5. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. From PCP to MXE: a comprehensive review of the non-medical use of dissociative drugs (pages 614–632)

      Hamilton Morris and Jason Wallach

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1620

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The non-medical use of over 30 dissociative drugs are reviewed spanning over 60 years. A complete portrait of this underground market is presented along with the relevant legal, technological and scientific developments which have driven its evolution.

  6. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Preparation and analytical characterization of 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) and 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)pyrrolidine (PCPy) analogues (pages 633–650)

      Jason Wallach, Giorgia De Paoli, Adeboye Adejare and Simon D. Brandt

      Article first published online: 2 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1468

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A total number of six PCP and PCPy analogues have been synthesized and analytically characterized. Some of these substances have recently been observed within the recreational context and this study aimed to provide the corresponding data to facilitate their identification which included analogues that have not yet been reported.

    2. Discrimination of cathinone regioisomers, sold as ‘legal highs’, by Raman spectroscopy (pages 651–657)

      R. Christie, E. Horan, J. Fox, C. O'Donnell, H. J. Byrne, S. McDermott, J. Power and P. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1518

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Discrimination of a cross section of cathinone regioisomers, sold as ‘legal highs’, using Raman spectroscopy, is reported here. Isomers of substituted cathinones mephedrone and flephedrone, methylone, butylone, methylenedioxypyrovalerone and naphyrone were synthesized as reference standards. Raman spectra of the isomers were obtained using far-red excitation (785 nm), and it was found possible to discriminate all of the isomers. Correct isomer assignment was also achieved in head shop products, providing a non-destructive and rapid technique for the discrimination of such isomers.

    3. Characterization of synthetic routes to ‘Bromo-DragonFLY’ and benzodifuranyl isopropylamine homologues utilizing ketone intermediates. Part 1: Synthesis of ketone precursors (pages 658–667)

      Richard E. O'Connor and John J. Keating

      Article first published online: 24 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1504

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The multifaceted synthesis of four novel precursor ketones structurally related to Bromo-DragonFLY and their characterization by FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HPLC, GC and mass spectrometry.

  7. Short communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. The syntheses, characterization and in vitro metabolism of nitracaine, methoxypiperamide and mephtetramine (pages 668–675)

      John D. Power, Kenneth R. Scott, Elizabeth A. Gardner, Bronagh M. Curran McAteer, John E. O'Brien, Margaret Brehon, Brian Talbot and Pierce V. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1616

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Three compounds, nitracaine, methoxypiperamide (MEOP) and mephtetramine (MTTA), appeared in 2013 as new ‘psychoactive’ substances (NPS) on Internet websites selling ‘research chemicals’. These compounds were synthesized and characterized. Their in vitro metabolic profiles were also investigated.

    2. Characterization of the pyrolysis products of methiopropamine (pages 676–683)

      Emily D. Bouso, Elizabeth A. Gardner, John E. O'Brien, Brian Talbot and Pierce V. Kavanagh

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1571

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      From the pyrolysis of methiopropamine, an analogue of methamphetamine, thirteen products were identified and ten were confirmed by comparison to synthesized standards. The products are formed through N-dealkylation, N-alkylation, N-formylation, β-carbon oxidation, β-carbon oxidation/N-alkylation, amine elimination, and carbon-carbon bond cleavage. Two pyrazine isomers also formed.

  8. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Characterization of a novel and potentially lethal designer drug (±)-cis-para-methyl-4-methylaminorex (4,4'-DMAR, or ‘Serotoni’) (pages 684–695)

      Simon D. Brandt, Michael H. Baumann, John S. Partilla, Pierce V. Kavanagh, John D. Power, Brian Talbot, Brendan Twamley, Olivia Mahony, John O'Brien, Simon P. Elliott, Roland P. Archer, Julian Patrick, Kuldip Singh, Nicola M. Dempster and Simon H. Cosbey

      Article first published online: 19 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1668

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      4,4′-DMAR has recently been associated with 26 fatal intoxications in Europe. The present study describes the analytical characterization of both (±)-cis- and (±)-trans racemates, their synthesis, and the identification of the (±)-cis compound in a test purchase from an Internet vendor. Monoamine transporter activity studies in rat brain synaptosomes also showed that (±)-cis-4,4'-DMAR was a potent, efficacious substrate-type releaser at transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

    2. An investigation of the stability of emerging new psychoactive substances (pages 696–704)

      Yan Ni Annie Soh and Simon Elliott

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1576

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This paper describes an investigation into the stability of new psychoactive substances in biological fluid supported by analytical evidence from toxicological casework.

    3. Study of collision-induced dissociation of electrospray-generated protonated cathinones (pages 705–715)

      Emilia Fornal

      Article first published online: 20 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1573

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      LC-Q-TOF spectra of substituted cathinones were acquired and analyzed to examine fragmentation pathways of protonated cathinones. Substituted cathinones were classified into nine classes based on structural criteria; main LC-Q-TOF product ions for each class were identified.

    4. Cross-reactivity of designer drugs, including cathinone derivatives, in commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (pages 716–727)

      Madeleine J. Swortwood, W. Lee Hearn and Anthony P. DeCaprio

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1489

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In this experiment, 16 different ELISA reagents from four commercial suppliers were evaluated to determine the cross-reactivity of 30 designer drugs, including cathinones, tryptamines, and piperizines. Cross-reactivity towards most drugs by these assays was minimal, with the exception of one supplier's mephedrone/methcathinone kit, where cathinone derivatives demonstrated cross-reactivity at concentrations as low as 150 ng/ml. Given these results, a need clearly exists for broader-range screening techniques to be applied when analyzing specimens for the majority of newer designer drugs.

    5. Validation of the only commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine: Randox Drugs of Abuse V Biochip Array Technology (pages 728–738)

      Kayla N. Ellefsen, Sébastien Anizan, Marisol S. Castaneto, Nathalie A. Desrosiers, Thomas M. Martin, Kevin L. Klette and Marilyn A. Huestis

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1633

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The use of designer drugs has grown rapidly over the past several years, including abuse of synthetic cathinones designed to elicit effects similar to methamphetamine, cocaine and 3’,4’-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). High-throughput screening methods and sensitive and specific confirmation methods for synthetic cathinones are needed for workplace (including military) and criminal justice programs. The first commercially available immunoassay for synthetic cathinones in urine, the Randox Drugs of Abuse V, was fully validated and assay performance assessed with authentic human urine specimens.

  9. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Predicting the activity and toxicity of new psychoactive substances: a pharmaceutical industry perspective (pages 739–745)

      Andrew G. Leach

      Article first published online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1593

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Understanding the effect that compounds might have on a population of humans that take them is of interest to those in the pharmaceutical industry as well as those concerned with psychoactives. As synthetic derivatives take psychoactive compounds into a property space that is more dangerous and more like those of pharmaceuticals, lessons from that sphere are worth considering.

  10. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. The in vivo and in vitro metabolism and the detectability in urine of 3’,4’-methylenedioxy-alpha-pyrrolidinobutyrophenone (MDPBP), a new pyrrolidinophenone-type designer drug, studied by GC-MS and LC-MSn (pages 746–756)

      Markus R. Meyer, Sandra Mauer, Golo M. J. Meyer, Julia Dinger, Birgit Klein, Folker Westphal and Hans H. Maurer

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1559

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Elucidation of MDPBP's in vivo and in vitro metabolism based on GC-MS and LC-MSn and its toxicological detection in human urine samples.

    2. Characterization of the designer benzodiazepine diclazepam and preliminary data on its metabolism and pharmacokinetics (pages 757–763)

      Bjoern Moosmann, Philippe Bisel and Volker Auwärter

      Article first published online: 6 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1628

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Based on a self-experiment, preliminary data on the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and detectability of the new designer benzodiazepine diclazepam in biological fluids are presented. It could be shown that this new drug has an approximate elimination half-life of 42 h and is metabolized into the pharmacologically active benzodiazepines delorazepam, lorazepam and lormetazepam. Furthermore, applying the presented LC-MS/MS method, consumption of one tablet diclazepam could be detected for 10 days in serum and 11 days in urine when targeting the metabolites.

    3. Determination of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25B-NBOMe) in serum and urine by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in a case of severe intoxication (pages 764–769)

      Justin L. Poklis, Carol R. Nanco, Michelle M. Troendle, Carl E. Wolf and Alphonse Poklis

      Article first published online: 2 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1522

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We present a case of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]-benzeneethanamine (25B-NBOMe), an N-benzyl phenethylamines derivative, intoxication and a high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for detection and quantification of 25B-NBOMe. The serum and urine specimens were determined to contain 180 pg/mL and 1900 pg/mL of 25B-NBOMe, respectively.

  11. Correspondence case report

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
  12. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Kitchen chemistry: A scoping review of the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions (pages 778–787)

      Marie Claire Van Hout

      Article first published online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1622

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The misuse of pharmaceuticals is of increasing drug policy and public health concern. A scoping review was conducted on the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions. Adverse health and social consequences relate to the use of unknown and contaminated (end) substances, injecting practices, redosing, virus transmission, medical complications (poly neuropathy, phlegmon, gangrene, necrosis of the jaw) and death. Proactive drug monitoring, and coordinated harm reduction, medical and social care interventions are warranted.

  13. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. DART-MS for rapid, preliminary screening of urine for DMAA (pages 788–796)

      Ashton D. Lesiak, Kendra J. Adams, Marek A. Domin, Colin Henck and Jason R. E. Shepard

      Article first published online: 25 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1540

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      DMAA is found in workout supplements and is a banned stimulant implicated with adverse health effects and fatalities. DART-MS is an ambient ionization method employed to rapidly identify the presence of DMAA without any extraction or preparations whatsoever. DMAA was identified in supplements in their solid forms and in urine as a means to indicate recent ingestion. DART-MS is instantaneous, and the high mass accuracy time-of-flight mass analyzer provides unequivocal identification, demonstrating DART-MS as an attractive alternative screening method.

    2. Analysis of 1,3 dimethylamylamine concentrations in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements (pages 797–804)

      Krista G. Austin, John Travis, Gerry Pace and Harris R. Lieberman

      Article first published online: 22 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1491

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      1,3 dimethylamylamine (DMAA) concentrations were determined in Geraniaceae, geranium oil and dietary supplements in order to establish whether DMAA contained in DS is of a synthetic origin. Findings show DMAA is not present in the plant species Geranium and Pelargonium; thus the ‘natural’ origin and use of DMAA as an ingredient in DS was not substantiated.

  14. Short communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. A methamphetamine analog (N,α-diethyl-phenylethylamine) identified in a mainstream dietary supplement (pages 805–807)

      Pieter A. Cohen, John C. Travis and Bastiaan J. Venhuis

      Article first published online: 14 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1578

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Hundreds of purportedly natural supplements have been found to contain pharmaceutical and banned substances. We confirm the presence of an uncommon methamphetamine analog, N,α-diethyl-phenylethylamine (N,α-DEPEA), in a mainstream workout supplement labelled as containing dendrobium extract. N,α-DEPEA has never been studied in humans, and its adverse effects are entirely unknown.

  15. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. New phenethylamines in Europe (pages 808–818)

      L. A. King

      Article first published online: 5 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1570

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In the past 20 years, around 100 illicit phenethylamines have been reported in Europe. Most are ring-substituted, but few are listed in the UN 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. 2C-B was the most commonly found of the newer phenethylamines, but other 2C compounds were widespread.

  16. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. New psychoactive substances as adulterants of controlled drugs. A worrying phenomenon? (pages 819–824)

      Claudio Vidal Giné, Iván Fornís Espinosa and Mireia Ventura Vilamala

      Article first published online: 27 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1610

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The use of new psychoactive substances (NPS) as adulterants of illegal drugs has not been documented in scientific literature. In this paper, data from a Spanish Drug Checking Service are presented. NPS (phenethylamines, amphetamines, substituted cathinones, tryptamines, and arylcyclohexylamines) were detected as substitutes for or mixed with illegal drugs. More research is needed in order to determine the risks of these combinations. Drug Checking Services can play an important role in reducing the harms associated with this phenomenon.

  17. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Changes in patterns of injecting drug use in Hungary: a shift to synthetic cathinones (pages 825–831)

      Anna Péterfi, Anna Tarján, Gergely Csaba Horváth, Tamás Csesztregi and Adrienn Nyírády

      Article first published online: 1 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1625

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Changes in the drug market, a decline in the availability of heroin, and the spread of new psychoactive substances, have affected patterns of injecting drug use in Hungary. Presented data show an increasing trend in the injection of cathinones and a parallel drop in heroin injection that have been taking place in Hungary since 2010.

  18. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Changes in the prevalence of new psychoactive substances before and after the introduction of the generic scheduling of synthetic cannabinoids in Japan (pages 832–839)

      Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Nahoko Uchiyama, Maiko Kawamura and Yukihiro Goda

      Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1584

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      To counter the spread of the many analogues of psychoactive substances, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan was amended in 2006 to establish a new category: Designated Substances. Additionally, a comprehensive system (generic scheduling) for designating naphthoylindole-type synthetic cannabinoids was introduced into this category in 2013. In this report, we describe the changes in the prevalence of new psychoactive substances and their legal status on the basis of our survey, especially the changes before and after the introduction of the 2013 generic scheduling of synthetic cannabinoids in Japan.

    2. Monitoring drug markets in the Internet age and the evolution of drug monitoring systems in Australia (pages 840–845)

      Lucy Burns, Amanda Roxburgh, Raimondo Bruno and Joe Van Buskirk

      Article first published online: 12 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1613

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In Australia drug monitoring systems have been in place for more than a decade, allowing for the measurement of ongoing trends in drug use and the detection of new drugs. The Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) measures the price, purity, and availability of drugs that are primarily injected. The Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) monitors psychostimulants that are used recreationally. The National Illicit Drugs Indicator Project (NIDIP) analyzes indicator data including drug related hospitalizations and deaths. Finally, the Drugs and Emerging Technologies Project (DNeT) analyzes the role of the Internet in the procurement and use of novel psychoactive substances. This paper provides an overview of each component of the system, demonstrating how the system has evolved over time.

  19. Short communications

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. The rise of new psychoactive substance use in Australia (pages 846–849)

      Lucy Burns, Amanda Roxburgh, Allison Matthews, Raimondo Bruno, Simon Lenton and Joe Van Buskirk

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1626

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are now a feature of Australia's recreational drug market with almost half of those who use ecstasy on a regular basis also reporting use of at least one NPS. The popularity of particular NPS rapidly changes and those with hallucinogenic effects are now most commonly reported. Monitoring systems need to become more ‘real time’ to monitor this highly dynamic market.

  20. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Using poisons information service data to assess the acute harms associated with novel psychoactive substances (pages 850–860)

      D. M. Wood, S. L. Hill, S. H. L. Thomas and P. I. Dargan

      Article first published online: 15 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1671

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) can be associated with significant acute harms (toxicity). We discuss in this paper how data from poisons information services, collected as part of their core activities, can be used to complement and build on other available data sources on NPS toxicity. This can include information on the clinical pattern of acute NPS toxicity and also data on geographical and time-patterns of toxicity on NPS.

  21. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. Optimization, validation, and the application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of new drugs of abuse in wastewater (pages 861–867)

      Alexander L. N. van Nuijs, Adriana Gheorghe, Philippe G. Jorens, Kristof Maudens, Hugo Neels and Adrian Covaci

      Article first published online: 19 FEB 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1460

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The development, validation and application of a method based on SPE and LC-MS/MS is presented to measure concentrations of new psychoactive substances in influent wastewater in the low ng/l range.

  22. Perspectives

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover picture
    3. Editorial and perspective
    4. Research articles
    5. Short communications
    6. Reviews
    7. Research articles
    8. Short communications
    9. Research articles
    10. Perspectives
    11. Research articles
    12. Correspondence case report
    13. Reviews
    14. Research articles
    15. Short communications
    16. Reviews
    17. Perspectives
    18. Research articles
    19. Perspectives
    20. Short communications
    21. Reviews
    22. Research articles
    23. Perspectives
    1. The interim regulated legal market for NPS (‘legal high’) products in New Zealand: The impact of new retail restrictions and product licensing (pages 868–875)

      Chris Wilkins

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1643

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      New Zealand has recently established the world's first regulated legal market for new psychoactive products (NPS) (i.e. ‘legal highs’). As a result of the licensing requirements, the number of NPS retail outlets fell from 3000 – 4000 largely convenience stores to 156 specialty stores, and the number of legally available NPS products fell from 200 to fewer than 46. The effectiveness of the new product safety assessment framework will depend on the quality of the data available on adverse cases.

    2. Current challenges and problems in the field of new psychoactive substances in Germany from a law enforcement perspective (pages 876–878)

      Anna Duffert

      Article first published online: 10 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1604

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The following picture shows the so-called “legal high” product “mojo” which is sold as 'ath salt” in the German recreational drug scene. According to the package instructions the so-called “legal high” product is not for human consumption and contains non-hazardous ingredients like caffeine, herbal blends, vitamin C etc. But in numerous instances in the past different NPS were identified within this product such as 3,4-methylendioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), butylone or 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC). As a consequence of this, consumers cannot assume that they will experience the same effects when consuming the same product repeatedly. Therefore also a number of fatal intoxications have also become known.

    3. Drug laws and the 'derivative' problem (pages 879–883)

      Leslie A. King, István Ujváry and Simon D. Brandt

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1523

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Numerous examples of ‘derivative’ occur in drugs legislation. Since the term derivative is rarely defined, a situation is created where the legal status of some substances is uncertain. Unless qualified, it is proposed that the term should be avoided in any future legislation.

    4. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland – Perspectives from academia (pages 884–891)

      Pierce V. Kavanagh and John D. Power

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1598

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation in Ireland is examined here by looking at recent developments in controlled drugs legislation and, specifically, their effects on academic research.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION