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Drug Testing and Analysis

Cover image for Vol. 6 Issue S1

Supplement: 18th Scientific Meeting of the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Geneva, Switzerland, August 28–30, 2013

June 2014

Volume 6, Issue S1

Pages 1–122

Issue edited by: Ronald Agius

  1. 18th Scientific Meeting of the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Geneva, Switzerland, August 28–30, 2013. The Society of Hair Testing and Wiley have published this supplement with financial support from the University of Geneva.

    1. Top of page
    2. 18th Scientific Meeting of the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Geneva, Switzerland, August 28–30, 2013. The Society of Hair Testing and Wiley have published this supplement with financial support from the University of Geneva.
    3. Research articles
    4. Short communication
    1. Editorial

      You have free access to this content
  2. Research articles

    1. Top of page
    2. 18th Scientific Meeting of the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Geneva, Switzerland, August 28–30, 2013. The Society of Hair Testing and Wiley have published this supplement with financial support from the University of Geneva.
    3. Research articles
    4. Short communication
    1. You have free access to this content
      Interpretation of hair findings in children: about a case involving carbamazepine (pages 2–4)

      Pascal Kintz

      Version of Record online: 13 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1596

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This office has been recently involved in a case dealing with child custody, based on carbamazepine identification in hair. In this case, it was impossible to conclude that the child was deliberately administered carbamazepine. The results of the analysis of hair could indicate that she was in an environment where carbamazepine was being used and where the drug was not being handled and stored with appropriate care.

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      Is one hair lock really representative? (pages 5–8)

      Franz Dussy, Nicholas Carson, Sarah Hangartner and Thomas Briellmann

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1627

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      Incorporation of substances into head hair is not necessarily very uniform. Significant differences in analyte concentrations may be found in hair locks of around 50 – 100 mg being sampled from the same person covering the same time period. This finding has a significant importance both when the second hair lock has to be analysed in a forensic case and if the interpretation of the result is depending on a cut-off value.

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      Development and application of GC-MS method for monitoring of long-term exposure to the pesticide cypermethrin (pages 9–16)

      Matthaios P. Kavvalakis, Manolis N. Tzatzarakis, Athanasios K. Alegakis, Dionysios Vynias, Andreas K. Tsakalof and Aristidis M. Tsatsakis

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1601

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      Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based method for cypermethrin (CPMN) metabolites quantification in hair was developed, validated and applied for monitoring of intentionally exposed animals. The detected concentrations of CPMN were time-duration and dose dependent.

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      Synthetic phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors use/abuse and interest of hair testing: reporting of a rape case (pages 17–21)

      Mathieu Duez, Matthieu Etter, Nadine Klinger and Vincent Cirimele

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1638

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      An analytical approach to test for phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in hair including the two new synthetic PD-5 inhibitors - thiosildenafil and hydroxythiohomosildenafil has been developed. This method was applied to a rape case following the consumption of pills containing these new compounds. Hair sample from the suspect was found positive and a complementary study done on a volunteer who ingested a single pill helped us to interpret the concentrations found.

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      Segmental analysis of amphetamines in hair using a sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method (pages 22–29)

      Gerd Jakobsson and Robert Kronstrand

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1637

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      A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for quantification of amphetamines in hair samples. The method was applied to samples from a controlled study of amphetamine intake as well as forensic hair samples from violent crimes, autopsies, drug testing and driving licence re-granting. We demonstrated that by carefully dividing hair samples into several short segments, the time point for a small intake can be estimated which can be of great importance in the interpretation of drug facilitated crimes.

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      Examination of sex differences in fatty acid ethyl ester and ethyl glucuronide hair analysis (pages 30–36)

      Joey Gareri, Chitra Rao and Gideon Koren

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1653

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      This study evaluates concordance and characteristics of fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) hair analysis in a predominantly female high-risk population. The performance of both biomarkers of frequent excessive alcohol consumption is reviewed with concurrent examination of cosmetic treatments, clinical history, and additional toxicological markers of alcohol use. This study identifies substantial false-negative risk for EtG analysis in females and recommend concurrent use of both biomarkers to improve accuracy in assessing females for problematic alcohol use.

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      Differentiation between consumption and external contamination when testing for cocaine and cannabis in hair samples (pages 37–41)

      Lolita Tsanaclis, James Nutt, Kim Bagley, Sian Bevan and John Wicks

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1623

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      The results presented confirm the usefulness of the evaluation of the wash residue levels with the levels detected in the hair to achieve a conclusive interpretation outcome. By utilizing the combination of ratio metabolite to parent drug and ratio of cocaine in the wash residue to the hair levels a conclusive outcome was achieved in most cases (over 98%) of the samples tested for cocaine.

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      Identification and analysis of damaged or porous hair (pages 42–54)

      Virginia Hill, Elvan Loni, Thomas Cairns, Jonathan Sommer and Michael Schaffer

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1652

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      Methods for identifying hair damaged by cosmetic hair treatments are presented. Methods for washing of hair to identify contamination can be modified to be appropriate for hair that is porous due to cosmetic damage.

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      Hair decontamination procedure prior to multi-class pesticide analysis (pages 55–66)

      Radu-Corneliu Duca, Emilie Hardy, Guillaume Salquèbre and Brice M. R. Appenzeller

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1649

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      Although increasing interest is being observed in hair analysis for the biomonitoring of human exposure to pesticides, some limitations still have to be addressed for optimum use of this matrix in that specific context. One main possible issue concerns the need to differentiate chemicals biologically incorporated into hair from those externally deposited on hair surface from contaminated air or dust. Therefore, a comprehensive hair decontamination procedure was developed comprising successive washing with sodium dodecylsulfate and methanol prior to pesticide analysis.

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      Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate (pages 67–73)

      Marie Spiandore, Anne Piram, Alexandre Lacoste, Denis Josse and Pierre Doumenq

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1659

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      The use of hair as a passive sampler for chemical warfare agents is evaluated.

      Hair has been exposed to methyl salicylate vapours, a sulphur mustard simulant, and a correlation between methyl salicylate content in hair and concentration time product has been shown.

      These results suggest that external hair contamination measurement could be useful to assess individual exposition to chemical warfare agents.

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      Influence of thermal hair straightening on ethyl glucuronide content in hair (pages 74–77)

      Jana Ettlinger, Luc Kirchen and Michel Yegles

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1648

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      Thermal hair straightening has an impact on the EtG content in hair: decrease or increase may be observed depending on hair type.

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      A study on photodegradation of methadone, EDDP, and other drugs of abuse in hair exposed to controlled UVB radiation (pages 78–84)

      Donata Favretto, Marianna Tucci, Alice Monaldi, Santo Davide Ferrara and Giorgia Miolo

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1607

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      Hair samples positive for drugs of abuse and metabolites were irradiated by UVB light for 32 h, while control aliquots were kept in the dark. Drug concentrations were determined and compared. Methadone levels decreased upon irradiation more than the other drugs of abuse (28– 85%) and opiates turned to be much less susceptible (0–43%). In fair hair, a much larger photodegradation of methadone and EDDP was observed than in dark hair.

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      Rapid method for the simultaneous determination of DDTs and PCBs in hair of children by headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HSSPME/GC-MS) (pages 85–92)

      Manolis N. Tzatzarakis, Emmanouil G. Barbounis, Matthaios P. Kavvalakis, Elena Vakonaki, Elisavet Renieri, Alexander I. Vardavas and Aristidis M. Tsatsakis

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1631

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      A Rapid HSSPME/GC-MS method for the simultaneuos quantification of DDTs and PCBs in hair was accomplished. The method was applied on hair of non-occupationally exposed subjects (children). Differences on the burden and the detected frequencies of the DDTs and PCB congeners were observed between urban and rural areas.

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      Buprenorphine and nor-buprenorphine levels in head hair samples from former heroin users under Suboxone® treatment (pages 93–100)

      Stamatis Belivanis, Manolis N. Tzatzarakis, Elena Vakonaki, Leda Kovatsi, Mary Mantsi, Athanasios Alegakis, Matthaios P. Kavvalakis, Dionisios Vynias and Aristidis M. Tsatsakis

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1611

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      An LC-MS method for the biomonitoring of buprenorphine and nor-buprenorphine in hair samples from former heroin users under Suboxone® treatment was development. Daily dose and total received amount of buprenorphine were significantly correlated with the analyte levels in hair.

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      Utility of ELISA screening for the monitoring of abstinence from illegal and legal drugs in hair and urine (pages 101–109)

      Ronald Agius and Thomas Nadulski

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1644

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      The area under the ROC curve for drugs in authentic hair samples validated for the detection of cannabinoids at 0.02 ng/mg hair, amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and methadone at 0.1 ng/mg hair and benzodiazepines at 0.05 ng/mg hair was compared to the area under the ROC curve for the same 6-drug MPA profile in authentic urine samples validated at 10 ng/mL cannabinoids, 50 ng/mL amphetamines and designer amphetamines, 25 ng/mL opiates, 30 ng/mL cocaine metabolite, 50 ng/mL methadone metabolite and benzodiazepines at 50 ng/mL in urine. The comparability of the AUC for both matrices indicates good to excellent ELISA test performance for both matrices at the above MPA cut-offs thus facilitating a double check of the samples using a different analytical technique as is required for high quality forensic testing.

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      Utility of coloured hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol (pages 110–119)

      Ronald Agius

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1654

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      Figure showing no significant difference between the positivity rate for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), opiates, methadone, benzodiazepines and ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in 1026 cosmetically treated authentic hair samples compared to the positivity of the same drugs in 9488 non-treated hair samples analyzed for driving licence re-granting.

  3. Short communication

    1. Top of page
    2. 18th Scientific Meeting of the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) Geneva, Switzerland, August 28–30, 2013. The Society of Hair Testing and Wiley have published this supplement with financial support from the University of Geneva.
    3. Research articles
    4. Short communication
    1. You have free access to this content
      Is urine an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol? (pages 120–122)

      Ronald Agius, Bertin Dufaux, Hans-Gerhard Kahl and Thomas Nadulski

      Version of Record online: 9 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/dta.1629

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Figure comparing the positivity rate of legal and illegal drugs in 1026 cosmetically treated hair samples and 33 262 urine routine samples in the same time period, hence attempting to assess the utility of the urine matrix as an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the rehabilitative driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) program in Germany.

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