• T-box transcription factor;
  • cleft palate;
  • nasal septum;
  • ankyloglossia


TBX22 belongs to the T-box family of transcription factors and was originally found in an in silico approach designed to identify new genes on the human Xq12-q21 region. Mutations in TBX22 have been reported in families with X-linked cleft palate and ankyloglossia (CPX), but the underlying pathogenetic mechanism remained unknown. We have identified mouse Tbx22 and analyzed its expression during embryogenesis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. In mouse embryos, it is expressed in distinct areas of the head, namely the mesenchyme of the inferior nasal septum, the posterior palatal shelf before fusion, the attachment of the tongue, and mesenchymal cells surrounding the eye anlage. The localization in the tongue frenulum perfectly correlates with the ankyloglossia phenotype in CPX. Furthermore, we identified positionally conserved binding sites for transcription factors, two of which have been implicated previously in palatogenesis (MSX1, PRX2). Developmental Dynamics 226:579–586, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.