Expression and regulation of groucho-related genes in the embryonic chicken feather bud
Article first published online: 28 FEB 2003
Copyright © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 226, Issue 4, pages 587–595, April 2003
How to Cite
Houghton, L., Freeman, A. and Morgan, B. A. (2003), Expression and regulation of groucho-related genes in the embryonic chicken feather bud. Dev. Dyn., 226: 587–595. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.10268
- Issue published online: 19 MAR 2003
- Article first published online: 28 FEB 2003
- Manuscript Accepted: 22 NOV 2002
- Manuscript Received: 25 MAR 2002
- NIH, NICHHD. Grant Number: 1 R01 HD38465 A 01
- groucho-related gene;
- chicken, embryo;
- feather bud;
The groucho-related gene (Grg) products modulate the transcriptional response to several extracellular signals, including the Wnts. In an effort to define the roles of Grgs in the morphogenesis of the feather bud, cDNAs encoding members of the Grg family were cloned from embryonic chick skin. In situ hybridization was used to localize transcripts for cGrg2, Grg3, Grg4, and Grg5 in embryos from day 6 through day 9. Expression of cGrg2, 3, and 5 is detected throughout the initial epidermal placode. As the buds mature, expression becomes limited to the posterior halves and eventually to the distal tip of the outgrowing bud. This pattern and the effects of forced activation of the bone morphogenetic protein and β-catenin signal transduction pathways on Grg gene expression suggest that these genes act downstream of the early activation of the β-catenin pathway that initiates placode formation. Induction of Grg genes by β-catenin may serve as a negative feedback to modulate pathway activation while also altering the activity of other transduction pathways involved in bud patterning. Developmental Dynamics 226:587–595, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.