A primer on using in ovo electroporation to analyze gene function
Article first published online: 28 JAN 2004
Copyright © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Special Issue: Chick as a Model System
Volume 229, Issue 3, pages 433–439, March 2004
How to Cite
Krull, C. E. (2004), A primer on using in ovo electroporation to analyze gene function. Dev. Dyn., 229: 433–439. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.10473
- Issue published online: 20 FEB 2004
- Article first published online: 28 JAN 2004
- Manuscript Accepted: 30 SEP 2003
- Manuscript Revised: 17 SEP 2003
- Manuscript Received: 28 AUG 2003
- National Institutes of Mental Health, Muscular Dystrophy Association. Grant Number: MH059894, MDA
The chicken embryo has served as a classic model system for developmental studies due to its easy access for surgical manipulations and a wealth of data about chicken embryogenesis. Notably, the mechanisms controlling limb development have been explored best in the chick. Recently, the method of in ovo electroporation has been used successfully to transfect particular cells/tissues during embryonic development, without the production or infectivity associated with retroviruses. With the sequencing of the chicken genome near completion, this approach will provide a powerful opportunity to examine the function of chicken genes and their counterparts in other species. In ovo electroporation has been most effectively used to date for ectopic or overexpression analyses. However, recent studies indicate that this approach can be used successfully for loss-of-function analyses, including protein knockdown experiments with morpholinos and RNAi. Here, I will discuss parameters for using in ovo electroporation successfully to study developmental processes. Developmental Dynamics 229:433–439, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.