Patterns & Phenotypes
Generating gradients of retinoic acid in the chick embryo: Cyp26C1 expression and a comparative analysis of the Cyp26 enzymes
Version of Record online: 22 APR 2004
Copyright © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 230, Issue 3, pages 509–517, July 2004
How to Cite
Reijntjes, S., Gale, E. and Maden, M. (2004), Generating gradients of retinoic acid in the chick embryo: Cyp26C1 expression and a comparative analysis of the Cyp26 enzymes. Dev. Dyn., 230: 509–517. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.20025
- Issue online: 2 JUN 2004
- Version of Record online: 22 APR 2004
- Manuscript Accepted: 1 DEC 2003
- Manuscript Revised: 28 NOV 2003
- Manuscript Received: 13 NOV 2003
- 2001. The retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme, CYP26A1, is essential for normal hindbrain patterning, vertebral identity, and development of posterior structures. Genes Dev 15: 226–240. , , , , , .
- 2002. Differential expression of the retinoic acid-metabolizing enzymes CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 during murine organogenesis. Mech Dev 110: 173–177. , , , , , .
- 1999. Stimulation of premature retinoic acid synthesis in Xenopus embryos following premature expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1. Eur J Biochem 260: 227–234. , .
- 1996. Retinoic acid induces stage-specific repatterning of the rostral central nervous system. Dev Biol 175: 347–357. , , , .
- 2003. Retinoic acid signalling centres in the avian embryo identified by sites of expression of synthesising and catabolising enzymes. Dev Dyn 227: 114–127. , , .
- 2002. A comprehensive collection of chicken cDNAs. Curr Biol 12: 1965–1969. , , , , , , , , , .
- 1987. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate- phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 162: 156–159. , .
- 1994. From gastrulation to neurulation: transition in retinoic acid sensitivity identifies distinct stages of neural patterning in the rat. Dev Dyn 200: 227–241. , , .
- 1999. Expression of retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase (CYP26) during mouse and Xenopus laevis embryogenesis. Mech Dev 82: 205–211. , , , , , .
- 1993. Induction of normal cardiovascular development in the vitamin A-deprived quail embryo by natural retinoids. Dev Biol 160: 424–433. , .
- 1997. Temporally-regulated retinoic acid depletion produces specific neural crest, ocular and nervous system defects. Development 124: 3111–3121. , , .
- 1995. Endogenous retinoids in the early avian embryo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 217: 1026–1031. , .
- 2000. Families of retinoid dehydrogenases regulating vitamin A function: production of visual pigment and retinoic acid. Eur J Biochem 267: 4315–4324. .
- 1997. Metabolic inactivation of retinoic acid by a novel P450 differentially expressed in developing mouse embryos. EMBO J 16: 4163–4173. , , , , , , , .
- 1996. Late effects of retinoic acid on neural crest and aspects of rhombomere identity. Development 122: 783–793. , , , , , .
- 1999. Hindbrain respecification in the retinoid-deficient quail. Mech Dev 89: 43–54. , , .
- 2000. Retinoid signalling and hindbrain patterning. Curr Opin Genet Dev 10: 380–386. , .
- 1951. A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo. J Morphol 88: 49–92. , .
- 1999. Distinct functions for Aldh1 and Raldh2 in the control of ligand production for embryonic retinoid signaling pathways. Dev Genet 25: 353–364. , , .
- 1985. Effects of retinoid deficiency on the development of the heart and vascular system of the quail embryo. Virchows Arch B Cell Pathol Incl Mol Pathol 50: 135–152. , , , , .
- 1998. Regionalized metabolic activity establishes boundaries of retinoic acid signaling. EMBO J 17: 7361–7372. , , , .
- 1996. Retinoic acid establishes ventral retinal characteristics. Development 122: 195–204. , , , , , .
- 1959. Experimental production of congenital malformations in mammals by metabolic procedure. Physiol Rev 39: 69–115. , .
- 1995. Anteriorization of CRABP-I expression by retinoic acid in the developing mouse central nervous system and its relationship to teratogenesis. Dev Biol 165: 514–528. , , , .
- 2001. Assigning the positional identity of spinal motor neurons: rostrocaudal patterning of Hox-c expression by FGFs, Gdf11, and retinoids. Neuron 32: 997–1012. , , .
- 2001. Cloning of a novel retinoic-acid metabolizing cytochrome P450, Cyp26B1, and comparative expression analysis with Cyp26A1 during early murine development. Mech Dev 107: 195–201. , , , , , .
- 1999. Heads or tails? Retinoic acid will decide. Bioessays 21: 809–812. .
- 1996. Vitamin A-deficient quail embryos have half a hindbrain and other neural defects. Curr Biol 6: 417–426. , , , .
- 1998. The distribution of endogenous retinoic acid in the chick embryo: implications for developmental mechanisms. Development 125: 4133–4144. , , , .
- 2000. Abnormalities of somite development in the absence of retinoic acid. Int J Dev Biol 44: 151–159. , , , .
- 1999. Dorsal and ventral rentinoic territories defined by retinoic acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression. Mech Dev 85: 203–214. , , , , .
- 1972. Morphogenesis of the malformations induced in rat embryos by maternal hypervitaminosis A. J Anat 113: 241–250. .
- 1991. Effects of retinoic acid excess on expression of Hox-29 and Krox-20 and on morphological segmentation in the hindbrain of mouse embryos. EMBO J 10: 2985–2995. , , , .
- 1999. Embryonic retinoic acid synthesis is essential for early mouse post-implantation development. Nat Genet 21: 444–448. , , , .
- 2000. Retinoic acid synthesis and hindbrain patterning in the mouse embryo. Development 127: 75–85. , , , , .
- 2003. Identification of novel roles of the cytochrome p450 system in early embryogenesis: effects on vasculogenesis and retinoic acid homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol 23: 6103–6116. , , , , , , , .
- 1999. A sonic hedgehog-independent, retinoid-activated pathway of neurogenesis in the ventral spinal cord. Cell 97: 903–915. , , , .
- 1993. The retinoid ligand 4-oxo-retinoic acid is a highly active modulator of positional specification. Nature 366: 340–344. , , , , , , , .
- 2003. Expression of the retinoic acid catabolising enzyme CYP26B1 in the chick embryo and its regulation by retinoic acid. Gene Expr Patterns 3: 621–627. , , .
- 2001. The retinoic acid-inactivating enzyme CYP26 is essential for establishing an uneven distribution of retinoic acid along the anterio- posterior axis within the mouse embryo. Genes Dev 15: 213–225. , , , , , , , .
- 1977. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 74: 5463–5467. , , .
- 2001. Local retinoid signaling coordinates forebrain and facial morphogenesis by maintaining FGF8 and SHH. Development 128: 2755–2767. , , , , .
- 1995. Retinoic acid induces stage-specific antero-posterior transformation of rostral central nervous system. Mech Dev 51: 83–98. , , , , , , , .
- 1998. Motor neuron-derived retinoid signaling specifies the subtype identity of spinal motor neurons. Cell 94: 503–514. , .
- 1999. Retinoic acid hydroxylase (CYP26) is a key enzyme in neuronal differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells. Dev Biol 213: 390–404. , , , , .
- 1999. Abnormal anterposterior and dorsoventral patterning of the limb bud in the absence of retinoids. Mech Dev 81: 115–125. , , , .
- 1999. Complementary domains of retinoic acid production and degradation in the early chick embryo. Dev Biol 216: 282–296. , , , , , .
- 2003. Cyp26C1 encodes a novel retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme expressed in the hindbrain, inner ear, first branchial arch and tooth buds during murine development. Gene Expr Patterns 3: 449–454. , , .
- 2000. Retinoic acid in the formation of the dorsoventral retina and its central projections. Dev Biol 222: 460–470. , , .
- 1996. Identification of the retinoic acid-inducible all-trans-retinoic acid 4- hydroxylase. J Biol Chem 271: 29922–29927. , , , , , , , , .
- 2000. Identification of the human cytochrome P450, P450RAI-2, which is predominantly expressed in the adult cerebellum and is responsible for all-trans-retinoic acid metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 6403–6408. , , , , , , , , , .