• histone deacetylase;
  • cartilage;
  • fin bud;
  • heart;
  • morpholino;
  • insertional mutant;
  • zebrafish


Histone deacetylases interact with nucleosomes to facilitate the formation of transcriptionally repressed chromatin. In the present study, we show that histone deacetylase 1 (hdac-1) is expressed throughout embryonic development of the zebrafish. The expression of hdac-1 is ubiquitous in early embryos (2–16 hr postfertilization), but at later stages (36 and 48 hr postfertilization), it is primarily restricted to the branchial arches, fin bud mesenchyme, and hindbrain. We report the phenotypes of hdac-1 homozygous mutant embryos and embryos injected with an hdac-1 antisense morpholino. These embryos possess a complex phenotype affecting several embryonic structures. We observed developmental abnormalities in the heart and neural epithelial structures, including the retina and the loss of craniofacial cartilage and pectoral fins. Developmental Dynamics 231:647–654, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.