The multi-C2H2 zinc-finger domain containing transcriptional regulators of the spalt (SAL) family plays important developmental regulatory roles. In a competitive subtractive hybridization screen of genes expressed in Xenopus laevis hindlimb regeneration blastemas, we identified a SAL family member that, by phylogenetic analysis, falls in the same clade as human SALL4 and have designated it as XlSALL4. Mutations of human SALL4 have been linked to Okihiro syndrome, which includes preaxial (anterior) limb defects. The expression pattern of XlSALL4 transcripts during normal forelimb and hindlimb development and during hindlimb regeneration at the regeneration-competent and regeneration-incompetent stages is temporally and regionally dynamic. We show for the first time that a SAL family member (XlSALL4) is expressed at the right place and time to play a role regulating both digit identity along the anterior/posterior axis and epimorphic limb regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 233:356–367, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.