Muscle fiber differentiation in fish embryos as shown by in situ hybridization of a large repertoire of muscle-specific transcripts



Skeletal muscles are composed of different fiber types, largely defined by differential expression of protein isoforms involved in myofibrillogenesis or metabolism. To learn more about the gene activations that underlie the differentiation and the diversification of embryonic fish myotomal fibers, we investigated the developmental expression of 25 muscle genes in trout embryos by in situ hybridization of muscle-specific transcripts. The earliest event of muscle differentiation, at approximately the 25-somite stage, was the expression of a variety of muscle-specific genes, including slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle isoforms. The activation of these muscle genes started in the deep somitic domain, where the slow muscle precursors (the adaxial cells) were initially located, and progressively spread laterally throughout the width of the myotome. This mediolateral progression of gene expression was coordinated with the lateral migration of slow adaxial cells, which specifically expressed the slow myosin light chain 1 and the SLIM1/FHL1 genes. Subsequently, the fast and slow skeletal muscle isoforms precociously expressed in the course of the mediolateral wave of muscle gene activation became down-regulated in the superficial slow fibers and the deep fast fibers, respectively. Finally, several muscle-specific genes, including troponins, a slow myosin-binding protein C, tropomodulins, and parvalbumin started their transcription only in late embryos. Taken together, these findings show in fish embryos that a common myogenic program is triggered in a mediolateral progression in all muscle cells. The acquisition of the slow phenotype involves the additional activation of several slow-specific genes in migrating adaxial muscle cells. These events are followed by sequential gene activations and repressions in fast and slow muscle cells. Developmental Dynamics 233:659–666, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.