Xenopus larvae possess a remarkable ability to regenerate their tails after they have been severed. To gain an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tail regeneration, we performed a cDNA macroarray-based analysis of gene expression. A Xenopus cDNA macroarray representing 42,240 independent clones was differentially hybridized with probes synthesized from the total RNA of normal and regenerating tails. Temporal expression analysis revealed that the up-regulated genes could be grouped into early or late responding genes. A comparative expression analysis revealed that most genes showed similar expression patterns between tail development and regeneration. However, some genes showed regeneration-specific expression. Finally, we identified 48 up-regulated genes that fell into several categories based on their putative functions. These categories reflect the various processes that take place during regeneration, such as inflammation response, wound healing, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and control of cell structure. Thus, we have identified a panel of genes that appear to be involved in the process of regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 233:1394–1404, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.