This article was accepted for inclusion in Developmental Dynamics 233#2, June 2005–Special Focus on Limb Development.
Joint development in Xenopus laevis and induction of segmentations in regenerating froglet limb (spike)†
Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2005
Copyright © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 233, Issue 4, pages 1444–1453, August 2005
How to Cite
Satoh, A., Suzuki, M., Amano, T., Tamura, K. and Ide, H. (2005), Joint development in Xenopus laevis and induction of segmentations in regenerating froglet limb (spike). Dev. Dyn., 233: 1444–1453. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.20484
- Issue online: 15 JUL 2005
- Version of Record online: 23 JUN 2005
- Manuscript Accepted: 1 MAY 2005
- Manuscript Revised: 14 APR 2005
- Manuscript Received: 10 DEC 2004
- Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Grant Number: 14208089
- Xenopus laevis
In Xenopus laevis, amputation of the adult limb results in the formation of a simple (hypomorphic) spike-like structure without joints, although tadpole limb bud regenerates complete limb pattern. The expression of some joint marker genes was examined in limb development and regeneration. Bmp-4 and gdf-5 were expressed and sox-9 expression was decreased in the joint region. Although developing cartilages were well-organized and had bmp-4 expressing perichondrocytes, the spike cartilage did not have such a structure, but only showed sparse bmp-4 expression. Application of BMP4-soaked beads to the spike led to the induction of a joint-like structure. These results suggest that the lack of joints in the spike is due to the deficiency of the accumulation of the cells that express bmp-4. Improvement of regeneration in the Xenopus adult limb that we report here for the first time will give us important insights into epimorphic regeneration. Developmental Dynamics 233:1444–1453, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.