Prox1, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophila gene prospero, is necessary for retina, lens, liver, pancreas, and lymphatics development. However, not much is yet known about Prox1 expression during central nervous system development. Here we provide a detailed analysis of Prox1 mRNA and protein expression during prenatal and postnatal murine brain development. Prenatally, Prox1 is expressed in the subventricular zone or in early differentiating regions of the brain. At these stages, Prox1 mRNA, but not Prox1 protein, was also detected in several regions of the prethalamus and hypothalamus. At an early postnatal stage, Prox1 expression is mainly detected in several nuclei of the thalamus, the cerebellum, and the hippocampus. In adulthood, Prox1 expression remains only in the hippocampus and cerebellum. These complex patterns of expression suggest that Prox1 activity is differentially required during brain development and adulthood. Developmental Dynamics 236:518–524, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.