In newt regeneration, differentiated cells can revert to stem cell–like cells in which the proliferative ability and multipotentiality are restored after dedifferentiation. However, the molecular events that occur during the dedifferentiation still remain obscure. Nucleostemin has been identified in mammals as a nucleolar protein specific to stem cells and cancer cells. In this study, a newt nucleostemin homologue was cloned and its regulation was analyzed. During lens regeneration, the expression of nucleostemin was activated and nucleostemin rapidly accumulated in the nucleoli of dedifferentiating pigmented epithelial cells 2 days before cell cycle reentry. During limb regeneration, nucleostemin also accumulated in the nucleoli of degenerating multinucleate muscle fibers before blastema formation. These findings suggest that nucleostemin plays a role in the dedifferentiation of newt cells and can provide crucial clues for addressing the molecular events at early steps of cellular dedifferentiation in newts. Developmental Dynamics 236:941–950, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.