• zebrafish;
  • retinoic acid receptors;
  • retinoid X receptors


Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is important for multiple aspects of embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. Heterodimers of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) transduce RA signaling. It is not yet clear how the diversity of receptor combinations relates to the diversity of functions for RA. The expression patterns of three zebrafish RARs and four RXRs were reported recently. Here, we identify an additional RAR, a zebrafish RARgamma paralog, and two additional RXRs, duplicates of the previously identified RXRalpha and RXRgamma. Thus, the zebrafish genome contains duplicates of each RAR and RXR gene. All zebrafish RAR and RXR paralogs have overlapping and distinct areas of expression, as might be expected for duplicate genes in the process of diverging in function. By representing what is potentially the complete set of zebrafish RARs and RXRs, this study provides a valuable reference for future functional studies of the individual zebrafish RARs and RXRs. Developmental Dynamics 236:587–595, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.