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- Hes7 OSCILLATION IS REGULATED BY NEGATIVE FEEDBACK
- COUPLED OSCILLATIONS IN NOTCH ACTIVITY AND Hes7 EXPRESSION
- INDIVIDUAL PSM CELLS HAVE AN UNSTABLE OSCILLATOR
- DIFFERENT MODES OF OSCILLATOR EXPRESSION IN THE ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR PSM
- ROLES OF Hes1 OSCILLATION IN NON-PSM CELLS
Somites are formed by periodic segmentation of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). This periodic event is controlled by the segmentation clock, where Notch signaling plays an essential role. The basic helix–loop–helix factor Hes7, a Notch effector, is cyclically expressed by negative feedback and regulates cyclic expression of Lunatic fringe (Lfng), a Notch modulator. Lfng then seems to periodically inhibit Notch, leading to oscillation in Notch activity. It is thought that these coupled negative feedback loops by Hes7 and Lfng are important for sustained and synchronized oscillations in the PSM. Of interest, another Notch effector, Hes1, is cyclically expressed by many cell types such as neuroblasts, suggesting that this clock is widely distributed and regulates many biological events. This review summarizes the recent finding about roles and mechanism of Notch signaling in the segmentation clock and discusses the significance of Hes1 oscillation in non-PSM cells. Developmental Dynamics 236:1403–1409, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.