Recent work in teleosts has renewed interest in the dermomyotome, which was initially characterized in the late 19th century. We review the evidence for the teleost dermomyotome, comparing it to the more well-characterized amniote dermomyotome. We discuss primary myotome morphogenesis, the relationship between the primary myotome and the dermomyotome, the differentiation of axial muscle, appendicular muscle, and dermis from the dermomyotome, and the signaling molecules that regulate myotome growth from myogenic precursors within the dermomyotome. The recognition of a dermomyotome in teleosts provides a new perspective on teleost muscle growth, as well as a fruitful approach to understanding the vertebrate dermomyotome. Developmental Dynamics 236:2432–2443, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.