Drs. Park and Jeong contributed equally to this work.
Dynamic DNA methylation reprogramming: Active demethylation and immediate remethylation in the male pronucleus of bovine zygotes
Article first published online: 5 AUG 2007
Copyright © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 236, Issue 9, pages 2523–2533, September 2007
How to Cite
Park, J. S., Jeong, Y. S., Shin, S. T., Lee, K.-K. and Kang, Y.-K. (2007), Dynamic DNA methylation reprogramming: Active demethylation and immediate remethylation in the male pronucleus of bovine zygotes. Dev. Dyn., 236: 2523–2533. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.21278
- Issue published online: 17 AUG 2007
- Article first published online: 5 AUG 2007
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 JUN 2007
- KRCF/KRIBB. Grant Number: KGM1310713
- MOST. Grant Number: F104AD010004
- KOSEF. Grant Number: 2006-04082
- bovine embryo;
- male pronucleus;
- active demethylation;
- de novo methylation;
- DNA methylation;
- histone methylation
DNA methylation reprogramming (DMR) is believed to be a key process by which mammalian zygotes gain nuclear totipotency through erasing epigenetic modifications acquired during gametogenesis. Nonetheless, DMR patterns do not seem to be conserved among mammals. To identify uniform rules underlying mammalian DMRs, we explored DMRs of diverse mammalian zygotes. Of the zygotes studied, of particular interest was the bovine zygote; the paternal DNA methylation first decreased and was then rapidly restored almost to the maternal methylation level even before the two-cell stage. The 5-azadeoxycytidine treatment led to complete demethylation of the male pronucleus. The unusually dramatic changes in DNA methylation levels indicate that the bovine male pronucleus undergoes active demethylation, which is followed by de novo methylation. Our results show that, in bovine, the compound processes of active DNA demethylation and de novo DNA methylation, along with de novo H3-K9 trimethylation also, take place altogether within this very narrow window of pronucleus development. Developmental Dynamics 236:2523–2533, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.