• GnRH-1;
  • GnRH-1 receptor;
  • tooth development and biomineralization;
  • GnRH-1-deficient mice


Gonadotropin releasing-hormone-1 (GnRH-1) is expressed in mouse incisors during development. In this report, we identify (1) cell type(s) that express GnRH-1 throughout tooth development, (2) the GnRH-1 receptor, and (3) the role of GnRH-1/GnRH-1 receptor signaling in tooth maturation. Results show that GnRH-1-positive cells in dental epithelium differentiate and populate multiple tooth structures including ameloblast and papillary layers that are involved in enamel formation and mineralization. The GnRH-1 receptor was present, and in vitro a GnRH-1 antagonist attenuated incisor GnRH-1 cell expression. In vivo, in mice lacking GnRH-1 (−/−), the incisors were discolored, longer, and more curved compared to wildtype. Elemental analysis of calcium, phosphorus, and iron revealed changes in −/− incisors consistent with GnRH-1 affecting movement of minerals into the dental matrix. In sum, in tooth development a signal transduction pathway exists for GnRH-1 via the GnRH-1 receptor and disruption of such signaling affects incisor growth and biomineralization. Developmental Dynamics 236:2980–2992, 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.