• regeneration;
  • jaw;
  • newt;
  • Xenopus;
  • Pax7


When mammals, including humans, lose a major part of their lower jaw, they are unable to regenerate the lost structures. Urodele amphibians, especially newts, can regenerate their lower jaw after amputation, whereas most anuran amphibians, including the West African clawed frog, can not. In the present study, we investigated the difference between newts and frogs during lower jaw regeneration. One difference was the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) mRNA after lower jaw amputation: MHC mRNA was immediately expressed at the tip of the amputated lower jaw in newts but not in frogs. Moreover, there were proliferating cells that expressed Pax7 in newts but not in frogs, although proliferating cells were present in both animals. These results suggest that the difference of the jaw-regenerating abilities between newts and frogs depends on the expression of MHC mRNA at the tip of the amputated jaw and the contribution of Pax7-positive cells. Developmental Dynamics 237:354–365, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.