Patterns & Phenotypes
SPARC is expressed by macroglia and microglia in the developing and mature nervous system
Article first published online: 25 MAR 2008
Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 237, Issue 5, pages 1449–1462, May 2008
How to Cite
Vincent, A. J., Lau, P. W. and Roskams, A. J. (2008), SPARC is expressed by macroglia and microglia in the developing and mature nervous system. Dev. Dyn., 237: 1449–1462. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.21495
- Issue published online: 21 APR 2008
- Article first published online: 25 MAR 2008
- Manuscript Accepted: 27 JAN 2008
- Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Grant Number: MOP-74666
- Spinal Research Trust
- Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research
- Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada
- Canadian Stroke Network
- 1998. Tenascin-R is antiadhesive for activated microglia that induce downregulation of the protein after peripheral nerve injury: a new role in neuronal protection. J Neurosci 18: 6218–6229. , , , , , , .
- 2004. Radial glia serve as neuronal progenitors in all regions of the central nervous system. Neuron 41: 881–890. , , , .
- 2007. SPARC from olfactory ensheathing cells stimulates Schwann cells to promote neurite outgrowth and enhances spinal cord repair. J Neurosci 27: 7208–7221. , , , , , , .
- 2005. Osteonectin is a Schwann cell-secreted factor that promotes retinal ganglion cell survival and process outgrowth. Eur J Neurosci 21: 2611–2623. , , , .
- 2005a. SPARC regulates extracellular matrix organization through its modulation of integrin-linked kinase activity. J Biol Chem 280: 36483–36493. , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2005b. Matricellular homologs in the foreign body response: hevin suppresses inflammation, but hevin and SPARC together diminish angiogenesis. Am J Pathol 166: 923–933. , , , , , .
- 2001. Impaired wound healing in mice deficient in a matricellular protein SPARC (osteonectin, BM-40). BMC Cell Biol 2: 15. , , , .
- 2003. FAK deficiency in cells contributing to the basal lamina results in cortical abnormalities resembling congenital muscular dystrophies. Neuron 40: 501–514. , , , , , , , , .
- 2001. SPARC, a matricellular protein that functions in cellular differentiation and tissue response to injury. J Clin Invest 107: 1049–1054. , .
- 2002. SPARC-null mice exhibit accelerated cutaneous wound closure. J Histochem Cytochem 50: 1–10. , , .
- 2003a. SPARC-null mice exhibit increased adiposity without significant differences in overall body weight. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 6045–6050. , , , .
- 2003b. SPARC-null mice display abnormalities in the dermis characterized by decreased collagen fibril diameter and reduced tensile strength. J Invest Dermatol 120: 949–955. , , , , , .
- 2000. SPARC, a matricellular protein: at the crossroads of cell-matrix communication. Matrix Biol 19: 569–580. , .
- 2006. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of neural repair after stroke: making waves. Ann Neurol 59: 735–742. .
- 1994. Osteonectin/SPARC is a product of articular chondrocytes/cartilage and is regulated by cytokines and growth factors. Biochim Biophys Acta 1221: 7–14. , , , .
- 2002. SPARC is a key Schwannian-derived inhibitor controlling neuroblastoma tumor angiogenesis. Cancer Res 62: 7357–7363. , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2006. Basal lamina: Schwann cells wrap to the rhythm of space-time. Curr Opin Neurobiol 16: 501–507. , , .
- 2000. Recovery recapitulates ontogeny. Trends Neurosci 23: 265–271. , .
- 2005. ATP mediates rapid microglial response to local brain injury in vivo. Nat Neurosci 8: 752–758. , , , , , , , , .
- 2007. Microglial activation and matrix protease generation during focal cerebral ischemia. Stroke 38: 646–651. , , , , , , .
- 1998. Basic fibroblast growth factor destabilizes osteonectin mRNA in osteoblasts. Am J Physiol 274: C734–740. , .
- 2000. Osteopenia and decreased bone formation in osteonectin-deficient mice. J Clin Invest 105: 915–923. , , , , , .
- 1999. Subventricular zone astrocytes are neural stem cells in the adult mammalian brain. Cell 97: 703–716. , , , , .
- 2007. Identification of SparcL1/Hevin as an astrocyte secreted protein that promotes central nervous system synapse formation. Program No. 571.1/G51. 2007 Neuroscience Meeting Planner. San Diego, CA: Society for Neuroscience (online). , , , , , , , .
- 2000. Imaging neuronal subsets in transgenic mice expressing multiple spectral variants of GFP. Neuron 28: 41–51. , , , , , , , , .
- 1994. Brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP): a novel signaling system in the developing mammalian CNS. Neuron 12: 895–908. , , .
- 1998. Importance of the basement membrane protein SPARC for viability and fertility in Caenorhabditis elegans. Curr Biol 8: 1285–1288. , .
- 2004. SPARC and tumor growth: where the seed meets the soil? J Cell Biochem 92: 679–690. , .
- 1999. SPARC regulates the expression of collagen type I and transforming growth factor-beta1 in mesangial cells. J Biol Chem 274: 32145–32152. , , , , , .
- 2003. SPARC regulates cell cycle progression in mesangial cells via its inhibition of IGF-dependent signaling. J Cell Biochem 88: 802–811. , , , , , , , .
- 2004. SPARC regulates TGF-beta1-dependent signaling in primary glomerular mesangial cells. J Cell Biochem 91: 915–925. , , , , , , .
- 1991. The Ca2(+)-binding glycoprotein SPARC modulates cell cycle progression in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88: 2648–2652. , .
- 2004. Generation of an environmental niche for neural stem cell development by the extracellular matrix molecule tenascin C. Development 131: 3423–3432. , , , .
- 2004. SPARC-like 1 regulates the terminal phase of radial glia-guided migration in the cerebral cortex. Neuron 41: 57–69. , , , , , , .
- 2001. Beta1-class integrins regulate the development of laminae and folia in the cerebral and cerebellar cortex. Neuron 31: 367–379. , , , , , , , , , .
- 1998. Signaling of de-adhesion in cellular regulation and motility. Microsc Res Tech 43: 420–432. , .
- 1999. Estrogen receptor immunoreactivity in Schwann-like brain macroglia. J Neurobiol 40: 458–470. , .
- 2002. A critical function of the pial basement membrane in cortical histogenesis. J Neurosci 22: 6029–6040. , , , , .
- 2004. Postnatal shifts of interneuron position in the neocortex of normal and reeler mice: evidence for inward radial migration. Neuroscience 124: 605–618. , , , , .
- 1985. Identification of major cell classes in the developing mammalian nervous system. J Neurosci 5: 3310–3328. , .
- 1987. In vivo expression of mRNA for the Ca+-binding protein SPARC (osteonectin) revealed by in situ hybridization. J Cell Biol 105: 473–482. , , , .
- 2000. Association of SPARC (osteonectin, BM-40) with extracellular and intracellular components of the ciliated surface ectoderm of Xenopus embryos. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 47: 154–162. , , , , .
- 2000. Increased sensitivity to the stimulant effects of morphine conferred by anti-adhesive glycoprotein SPARC in amygdala. Nat Med 6: 910–915. , , , .
- 1995. Expression of SPARC during development of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane: evidence for regulated proteolysis in vivo. Mol Biol Cell 6: 327–343. , , , , , , .
- 2005. The origin and development of glial cells in peripheral nerves. Nat Rev Neurosci 6: 671–682. , .
- 1994. Osteonectin/SPARC regulates cellular secretion rates of fibronectin and laminin extracellular matrix proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200: 423–428. , , , .
- 2007. The adult mouse subependymal zone regenerates efficiently in the absence of tenascin-C. J Neurosci 27: 13991–13996. , , , .
- 2007. SPARC is a VCAM-1 counter-ligand that mediates leukocyte transmigration. J Leukoc Biol 81: 748–756. , , , , , , .
- 1998. SPARC (BM-40, osteonectin) inhibits the mitogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on microvascular endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 273: 29635–29640. , , .
- 2006. Early activation, motility, and homing of neonatal microglia to injured neurons does not require protein synthesis. Glia 54: 58–70. , , , , .
- 1994. SPARC is a source of copper-binding peptides that stimulate angiogenesis. J Cell Biol 125: 929–943. , , , .
- 2005. Olfactory ensheathing cells and olfactory nerve fibroblasts maintain continuous open channels for regrowth of olfactory nerve fibres. Glia 52: 245–251. , , .
- 2005. Tenascin-R plays a role in neuroprotection via its distinct domains that coordinate to modulate the microglia function. J Biol Chem 280: 8316–8323. , , , , .
- 2000. Noggin antagonizes BMP signaling to create a niche for adult neurogenesis. Neuron 28: 713–726. , , , , , .
- 2005. Entorhinal deafferentation induces upregulation of SPARC in the mouse hippocampus. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 141: 58–65. , , , , , , .
- 1993. Restricted proliferation and migration of postnatally generated neurons derived from the forebrain subventricular zone. Neuron 11: 173–189. .
- 2002. Evolutionary conservation and association of SPARC with the basal lamina in Drosophila. Dev Genes Evol 212: 124–133. , , , , .
- 2007. SPARC upregulates MT1-MMP expression, MMP-2 activation, and the secretion and cleavage of galectin-3 in U87MG glioma cells. Neurosci Lett 419: 172–177. , , , , , , , .
- 1994. Expression of the gene encoding the extracellular matrix glycoprotein SPARC in the developing and adult mouse brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 24: 11–19. , .
- 1994. Developmental expression in the rat cerebellum of SC1, a putative brain extracellular matrix glycoprotein related to SPARC. Brain Res 633: 197–205. , , , .
- 1995. SPARC, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein containing the follistatin module, is expressed by astrocytes in synaptic enriched regions of the adult brain. Brain Res 676: 69–79. , , .
- 2002. Anatomy of the brain neurogenic zones revisited: fractones and the fibroblast/macrophage network. J Comp Neurol 451: 170–188. , , .
- 2002. Inhibition of PDGF-stimulated and matrix-mediated proliferation of human vascular smooth muscle cells by SPARC is independent of changes in cell shape or cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. J Cell Biochem 84: 759–771. , , , , , .
- 2003. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation and the promotion of skeletal myoblast differentiation by SPARC: a role for protein kinase A. J Cell Biochem 90: 408–423. , , , , , , .
- 2001. Differential mRNA expression of the related extracellular matrix glycoproteins SC1 and SPARC in the rat embryonic nervous system and skeletal structure. Brain Res 892: 27–41. , .
- 2007. Olfactory epithelium progenitors: insights from transgenic mice and in vitro biology. J Mol Histol 38: 581–599. , .
- 2005. Integrin-linked kinase deletion from mouse cortex results in cortical lamination defects resembling cobblestone lissencephaly. J Neurosci 25: 7022–7031. , , , , .
- 2005. Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science 308: 1314–1318. , , .
- 2007. Regeneration of the central nervous system using endogenous repair mechanisms. J Neurochem 102: 1459–1465. , , , , .
- 2004. Collagen IV is essential for basement membrane stability but dispensable for initiation of its assembly during early development. Development 131: 1619–1628. , , , , , .
- 2005. SPARC-thrombospondin-2-double-null mice exhibit enhanced cutaneous wound healing and increased fibrovascular invasion of subcutaneous polyvinyl alcohol sponges. J Histochem Cytochem 53: 571–581. , , , , , , , , , , .
- 1972. Mode of cell migration to the superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex. J Comp Neurol 145: 61–83. .
- 2004. Peripheral olfactory ensheathing cells reduce scar and cavity formation and promote regeneration after spinal cord injury. J Comp Neurol 473: 1–15. , , , , , .
- 2001. SPARC modulates cell growth, attachment and migration of U87 glioma cells on brain extracellular matrix proteins. J Neurooncol 53: 149–160. , , , , .
- 2007. Splenic and immune alterations of the Sparc-null mouse accompany a lack of immune response. Genes Immun 8: 262–274. , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2005. Lamina propria and olfactory bulb ensheathing cells exhibit differential integration and migration and promote differential axon sprouting in the lesioned spinal cord. J Neurosci 25: 10700–10711. , , , , .
- 2007. Olfactory ensheathing cell transplantation following spinal cord injury: Hype or hope? Exp Neurol 209: 353–367. , .
- 2006. The novel SPARC family member SMOC-2 potentiates angiogenic growth factor activity. J Biol Chem 281: 22855–22864. , , , , .
- 2001. Regulation of interactions between cells and extracellular matrix: a command performance on several stages. J Clin Invest 107: 781–783. .
- 1989a. Distribution of the calcium-binding protein SPARC in tissues of embryonic and adult mice. J Histochem Cytochem 37: 819–829. , , , , .
- 1989b. SPARC, a secreted protein associated with cellular proliferation, inhibits cell spreading in vitro and exhibits Ca+2-dependent binding to the extracellular matrix. J Cell Biol 109: 341–356. , , , , .
- 2007a. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) inhibits integrin-mediated adhesion and growth factor-dependent survival signaling in ovarian cancer. Am J Pathol 170: 1054–1063. , , .
- 2007b. Normalization of the Ovarian Cancer Microenvironment by SPARC. Mol Cancer Res 5: 1015–1030. , , , , , .
- 1997. Limited cleavage of extracellular matrix protein BM-40 by matrix metalloproteinases increases its affinity for collagens. J Biol Chem 272: 9237–9243. , , , , , , , .
- 2003. SPARC inhibits epithelial cell proliferation in part through stimulation of the transforming growth factor-beta-signaling system. Mol Biol Cell 14: 3977–3988. , , .
- 2004. Secreted protein acidic, rich in cysteine (SPARC), mediates cellular survival of gliomas through AKT activation. J Biol Chem 279: 52200–52209. , , , , , , , .
- 2007. Targeting SPARC expression decreases glioma cellular survival and invasion associated with reduced activities of FAK and ILK kinases. Oncogene 26: 4084–4094. , , , , , , .
- 1998. Differential effects of various growth factors and cytokines on the syntheses of DNA, type I collagen, laminin, fibronectin, osteonectin/secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC), and alkaline phosphatase by human pulp cells in culture. J Cell Physiol 174: 194–205. , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2001. Transforming growth factor-beta1 and basic fibroblast growth factor modulate osteocalcin and osteonectin/SPARC syntheses in vitamin-D-activated pulp cells. J Dent Res 80: 1653–1659. , , , , , , , , .
- 1996. Ultrastructural study of ensheathing cells in early development of olfactory axons. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 95: 135–139. , .
- 2000. Targeting angiogenesis inhibits tumor infiltration and expression of the pro-invasive protein SPARC. Int J Cancer 87: 261–268. , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2006. Absence of SPARC in lens epithelial cells results in altered adhesion and extracellular matrix production in vitro. J Cell Biochem 97: 423–432. , , .
- 1991. Regulation of the expression of a secreted acidic protein rich in cysteine (SPARC) in human fibroblasts by transforming growth factor beta. Comparison of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control with fibronectin and type I collagen. Eur J Biochem 197: 519–528. , , .
- 2002. Alterations in the lens capsule contribute to cataractogenesis in SPARC-null mice. J Cell Sci 115; 2747–2756. , , , .
- 2003. Expression of the matricellular protein SPARC in murine lens: SPARC is necessary for the structural integrity of the capsular basement membrane. J Histochem Cytochem 51: 503–511. , , , .
- 2005. Absence of SPARC in murine lens epithelium leads to increased deposition of laminin-1 in lens capsule. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 46: 4652–4660. , , , .
- 2005. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 21 (ADAM21) is associated with neurogenesis and axonal growth in developing and adult rodent CNS. J Comp Neurol 490: 163–179. , , .
- 2007. Radial glial dependent and independent dynamics of interneuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. PLoS ONE 2: e794. , , , , , .
- 2005. Metalloproteinases: mediators of pathology and regeneration in the CNS. Nat Rev Neurosci 6: 931–944. .