Reviews–A Peer Reviewed Forum
Peptide hormones as developmental growth and differentiation factors
Article first published online: 22 MAY 2008
Copyright © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Volume 237, Issue 6, pages 1537–1552, June 2008
How to Cite
Sanders, E. J. and Harvey, S. (2008), Peptide hormones as developmental growth and differentiation factors. Dev. Dyn., 237: 1537–1552. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.21573
- Issue published online: 22 MAY 2008
- Article first published online: 22 MAY 2008
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 APR 2008
- growth factors
Peptide hormones, usually considered to be endocrine factors responsible for communication between tissues remotely located from each other, are increasingly being found to be synthesized in developing tissues, where they act locally. Several hormones are now known to be produced in developing tissues that are unrelated to the endocrine gland of origin in the adult. These hormones are synthesized locally, and are active as differentiation and survival factors, before the developing adult endocrine tissue becomes functional. There is increasing evidence for paracrine and/or autocrine actions for these factors during development, thus, placing them among the conventional growth and differentiation factors. We review the evidence for the view that thyroid hormones, growth hormone, prolactin, insulin, and parathyroid hormone-related protein are developmental growth and differentiation factors. Developmental Dynamics 237:1537–1552, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.