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The Supplementary Material can be viewed online.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
Movie1.mov1587KMovie 1. The effects of needle micromanipulation on the ECM. DIC images of a collagen matrix without cells being compressed by pushing with a Femtotip from top to bottom.
Movie2.mov719KMovie 2. Fibroblast response to ECM compression parallel to cell axis. Human corneal fibroblast 2 days after plating inside collagen matrix. Cellular contraction was observed following a needle push toward the end of the cell.
Movie3.mov4963KMovie 3. Fibroblast response to ECM compression parallel to cell axis. Same cell as in Movie 2. The initial contraction (Movie 2) was followed by the extension of pseudopodia and rapid pulling in of the ECM (traction).
Movie4.mov6227KMovie 4. Rabbit corneal fibroblast migrating downward. Extension of pseudopodia at the leading edge was associated with tractional force generation (inward movement of collagen fibrils). At the rear of the cell, apparent rupture of cell-matrix adhesions led to elastic recoil of a cell process and release of ECM tension (as indicated by collagen movement away from the cell). Surprisingly, small extensions and retractions of pseudopodia were observed at the trailing edge of the cell throughout this process.
Movie5.mov4837KMovie 5. Fibroblast response to ECM compression parallel to cell axis. Same cell as in Movie 4. Following needle push, spreading is initiated at the trailing edge of the cell.
Movie6.mov7020KMovie 6. Fibroblast response to ECM compression parallel to cell axis. Initial contraction followed by the extension of pseudopodia and tractional force generation was observed. Time shown is in minutes:seconds.
Movie7.mov6775KMovie 7. Fibroblast response to ECM compression parallel to cell axis, after 40 min of treatment with cytochalasin D. The initial cellular shortening normally observed after pushing with the needle was significantly reduced. In addition, no secondary cell activity or ECM displacements were observed after the initial needle push. Time shown is in minutes:seconds.
Movie8.mov6056KMovie 8. Fibroblast response to ECM compression perpendicular to cell axis. Human corneal fibroblast 1 day after plating inside collagen matrix. Pushing the microneedle toward the side of the cell had no significant effect on cell morphology or tractional force generation.
Movie9.mov3883KMovie 9. Fibroblast response to injection of PDGF in front of cell. Both extension of existing pseudopodia toward the injection site and formation of new processes was observed. Tractional force was generated during PDGF-induced spreading, as indicated by pulling in of individual collagen fibrils in front of extending pseudopodia.
Movie10.mov8393KMovie 10. Rapid cell migration induced by PDGF injection to the right of the cell. As the cell migrated toward the needle, extension of pseudopodia and tractional force generation at the leading edge was observed. At the rear of the cell, apparent rupture of cell-matrix adhesions led to elastic recoil of cell processes and release of ECM tension (as indicated by collagen movement away from the cell). Surprisingly, small extensions and retractions of pseudopodia were often still observed at the trailing edge of the cell during cell migration (circle).

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